Human Anatomy Lab Manual

Human Anatomy Lab Manual

Malgosia Wilk-Blaszczak

Kevin Alford, Andrea Campo-Velez, and Victoria Dorch

Mavs Open Press

Arlington

Contents

1

About the Publisher

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About Mavs Open Press

Creation of this resource was supported by Mavs Open Press, operated by the University of Texas at Arlington Libraries (UTA Libraries). Mavs Open Press offers no-cost services for UTA faculty, staff, and students who wish to openly publish their scholarship. The Libraries’ program provides human and technological resources that empower our communities to publish new open access journals, to convert traditional print journals to open access publications, and to create or adapt open educational resources (OER). Our resources are openly licensed using Creative Commons licenses and are offered in various e-book formats free of charge, which can be downloaded from the Mavs Open Press OER catalog. Optional print copies of this text may be available through the UTA Bookstore or can be purchased directly from XanEdu, Mavs Open Press’ exclusive print provider and distributor.

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2

About This Project

Overview

This is a lab manual for a college-level human anatomy course (BIOL 3446 at UTA).  Despite the abundance of information readily available via Google, the mastery of anatomy requires a fair amount of memorization for quick recall.  The activities in this manual encourage students to engage with new vocabulary in many ways, including grouping key terms, matching terms to structures, recalling definitions, and written exercises.

As the majority of college campuses do not have easy access to a cadaver, most of the activities in this manual utilize anatomical models. Also included are several dissections of animal tissues, and a significant amount of histological examinations.

Each unit includes both pre- and post-lab questions and six lab exercises designed for a classroom where students move from station to station during a three-hour period.  Effort was put into equalizing the time required to perform each lab exercise, to facilitate class flow.  The vocabulary terms used in each unit are listed at the end of the manual and serve as a checklist for practicals.

Creation Process

When Malgosia Wilk-Blaszczak began teaching human anatomy at UTA she realized that while there are many commercially available manuals which incorporate a lot of human physiology, none of them focus solely on anatomy. She decided to create a manual for anatomy labs that could fill that void. The first version of this work was created and used in anatomy labs at UTA.

The idea of publishing the lab manual as an OER came to her courtesy of Michelle Reed, Open Education Librarian at UTA. To make this leap to an open platform, she enlisted the help of some of her best students. In Fall 2017, one year prior to the publication of this work, Wilk recruited a group of three excellent undergraduate teaching assistants. These students worked with UTA Libraries to identify openly licensed images and incorporate them into the text. Libraries’ staff assisted in migrating the resource to Pressbooks, where it could be easily exported into a variety of formats. Furthermore, we conducted student surveys to gather feedback. Wilk’s teaching assistants have always been an important part of her pedagogy. With their assistance, she was able to complete and openly publish this anatomy lab manual. The students put in the hard work to change all illustrations to Creative Commons licensed images and ensure proper attribution of all the images used. The student contributors, Kevin Alford, Andrea Compo-Valez, and Victoria Dorch, now alumni, reviewed and edited the resource, and are listed as co-authors of this manual.

Ultimately, open manuals reduce the cost to students while customizing the information and visuals required for class.  In addition, the digital copy of the manual allows students to access homework and exercises wherever they are and is easily obtainable on the first day of class. Open manuals are also dynamic works that can be adapted to suit the needs of other institutions or groups that wish to explore the topic but do not have a solid framework to do so. The resulting OER is being piloted in human anatomy labs in Fall 2018 and will be revised following the pilot period with input from current students and lab instructors. It is our hope that this extension of Wilk’s class will open the door to connecting our courses to broader collaborations and student input.

About the Author

null
In the International Museum of Surgical Science, Chicago, IL

Dr. Malgosia Wilk-Blaszczak has taught human anatomy and human physiology courses for 30 years to medical and nursing students, and currently to undergraduate students at University of Texas at Arlington.  She holds an M.D. and a Ph.D. in Neuroscience from the Warsaw Medical University. Ever since she discovered her father’s anatomical fold-out “manikin” as a child, Dr. Wilk has has been enamored by all aspects of the human body. In addition to teaching, she loves old medical illustration and never misses the chance to see them in museums when she travels.

3

Acknowledgments

Author’s Note

I would like to dedicate this section to all my undergraduate teaching assistants, past and present. Every semester, I pick the most gifted students from previous semesters to serve as teaching assistants. I appreciate your commitment, passion, and hard work, but most of all, the amazing times we have had together. Special thanks to Clint Hassell and Natalie Winter who have served as my teaching assistants for many semesters, and have been good friends ever since. You have always done more than what was expected, and have given so much of your time and effort to support students to really grow and surprise us.

LEAD AUTHOR AND EDITOR 

Malgosia Wilk-Blaszczak, M.D., Ph.D. – Professor of Instruction, University of Texas at Arlington

CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS

Kevin A. Alford, B.S. – University of Texas at Arlington alumnus

Andrea Campo-Velez, B.S. – University of Texas at Arlington alumna

Victoria Dorch, B.S. – University of Texas at Arlington alumna

EDITOR

Kevin A. Alford, B.S. – University of Texas at Arlington alumnus

ILLUSTRATORs

Andrea Campo-Velez, B.S. – University of Texas at Arlington alumna

Victoria Dorch, B.S. – University of Texas at Arlington alumna

Additional Thanks to…

Michelle Reed and Thomas Perappadan of UTA Libraries for assisting in the publication of this resource.

Jodi Wiley, B.S, UTA alumna, for creating and formatting class handouts that became the foundation for this OER.

Bradford Dimos, UTA graduate student, and Collin Funkhouser, UTA alumnus, for class-testing the previous version of this resource.

About the Cover

Kyle Pinkos, UTA Libraries’ Marketing Coordinator, designed the cover for this OER. The images used are in the public domain. Featured images, from Ontleding Des Menschelyken Lichaams by Govard Bidloo, are available from the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

I

Lab 1: Anatomical Language

Lab 1: Anatomical Language

Measurable Outcomes

  • Understand what the standard anatomical position is.
  • Correctly identify a given plane by its correct name.
  • Relate different structures of the body using the directional terms provided.
  • Correctly identify the anatomical regions of the body.
  • Demonstrate how to properly focus histology slides and identify key structures.
  • Demonstrate an adequate understand of the material in this section.

Background

A solid foundation is essential when learning any new skill. Understanding anatomical directions, articulations, planes, and regions are the foundation for learning anatomy.

The standard anatomical position of the human body is facing towards the observer, legs hip-width apart, feet facing forward, arms out slightly at either side with palms facing forward. When determining a structure’s relative position, be sure to use this frame of reference. For example, it can be easy to confuse which side is the anterior aspect of the hands, therefore, one might incorrectly assume that the thumb is medial to the little finger. Remember, the anterior aspect of the hand is the palm, therefore the thumb is furthest from the center of the body and is lateral.

The archetypal body planes are frontal, sagittal and transverse planes. The frontal plane splits the body into anterior and posterior halves. The sagittal plane splits the body into left and right halves. The transverse plane splits the body into superior and inferior (top and bottom) halves. It is important to be able to identify a given plane so that you can orient yourself when a specimen, model or diagram is depicted a certain way. This same reasoning applies to the necessity of understanding directional terms such as anterior, inferior, distal and medial. It is recommended that you read the content prior to attending lab to make the most of your time.

Vocabulary for Anatomical Language on page(s) 160-161.

1

Pre-Lab 1

(5 points)

Last Name: _______________________  First Name: _______________________

 

Instructions:

Fill in the table below with the appropriate terms. Note: For this lab only, you may use any anatomical structure of the human body to fill in the table.

For the remaining pages of the prelab, label the designated planes, regions, and directions.

(1 point)

Name of a structure is directional term to Name of the second structure
forearm* is proximal to hand*
head is superior to
is inferior to tibia
breast is anterior to
is distal to upper arm
brain is medial to
is lateral to trunk

 

Label the planes of the body. (1 point)

 

The three planes most commonly used in anatomical and medical imaging
Planes of Body

 

Label all nine regions of the abdomen. (1 point)

 

Abdominal Quadrant Diagram Labeling

 

 

Label the anatomical directions designated by the lines and arrows. (1 point)

 

Relative location in the anatomical position - Female

 

 

Label the regions of the body. (1 point)

 

Relative location in the anatomical position - Male

2

Lab Activities

For this lab only, there will be three stations for each group to cycle through, stations one, two and three; stations four, five and six will mirror these stations for this lab only. A list of words is provided below that you are expected to identify, learn, and label on the models provided. You must use all the words provided. Using the colored tape provided, write the number that corresponds to the organ/structure and place it on your model. When complete, notify your TA so they may check your work.
Note: Do not simply label the models, it is crucial that you understand how to apply all of these terms in each system, for the rest of the semester!
For each additional station, directions will be provided for the particular activity.

Stations One and Six: Histology

This is an advanced biology class, therefore you all likely have experience with microscopes. However, use these stations to refresh your memory of proper microscope etiquette, how to focus on a slide, and identify key features. For the remainder of this class, you will be expected to identify various tissues under the microscope. Be sure to ask your TA for assistance, and remember taking a picture of the slide to study later is not helpful if you don’t take the time to study it in lab and understand which aspects are most important.

Basic instructions for use:

Sketch the slides available for today’s lab and indicate the magnitude at which you are observing/sketching. Be sure to identify, include, and label your sketch with the corresponding structures listed beneath each slide. Use the images provided to guide you through this process.

 

 

 

 

 

Identify, include, and label your sketch using the Structures - Basophil, Eosinophil, Neutrophil, Monocyte, Lymphocyte Identify, include, and label your sketch using Structures - Osteon, Lacunae, Haversian Canal
Monocyte

Compact Bone

Structures - Basophil, Eosinophil, Neutrophil, Monocyte, Lymphocyte Structures - Osteon, Lacunae, Haversian Canal
Identify, include, and label your sketch using Structures- Anterior median fissure, Posterior gray horns, Lateral white columns, Central canal Identify, include, and label your sketch using Structure - Renal corpuscle

Spinal Cord

Kidney

Structures- Anterior median fissure, Posterior gray horns, Lateral white columns, Central canal Structure - Renal corpuscle

 

Stations Two and Five: The Basics

The terms in the following tables are important in understanding the relationship between different organs and structures of the body. Using the models and diagrams in your atlas, learn how to identify the different body planes and the appropriate use of directional terms. When trying to understand body movements, it is helpful to act them out yourself.

Label the torso models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate regions of the abdominal cavity using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all of the labels you have placed on the model. Note the locus of each organ within each region.

Body Planes

#1 frontal

#2 transverse

#3 sagittal

Directional Terms

#4 anterior

#7 inferior

#10 proximal

#13 superficial

#5 posterior

#8 lateral

#11 distal

#14 parietal

#6 superior

#9 medial

#12 deep

#15 visceral

 

Abdominal Regions

#16 right hypochondriac region

#19 right lumbar region

#22 right iliac region

#17 epigastric region

#20 umbilical region

#23 hypogastric region

#18 left hypochondriac region

#21 left lumbar region

#24 left iliac region

 

Stations Three and Four: Regions of the Body

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Anatomical Regions

#1 cephalic

#11 brachial

#21 abdominal

#31 femoral

#2 cranial

#12 cubital

#22 hepatic

#32 patellar

#3 ocular (orbital)

#13 antecubital

#23 renal

#33 popliteal

#4 auricular (otic)

#14 olecranal

#24 umbilical

#34 crural

#5 buccal

#15 antebrachial

#25 lumbar

#35 sural

#6 nasal

#16 carpal (carpus)

#26 pelvic

#36 tarsal (tarsus)

#7 oral

#17 palmar

#27 inguinal

#37 calcaneal

#8 cervical

#18 digital (phalangeal)

#28 pubic

#38 pedal

#9 acromial

#19 thoracic

#29 sacral

#39 plantar

#10 scapular

#20 mammary

#30 gluteal

Common Anatomical Features

The following terms are useful to know and understand as they will reappear throughout this course.

#40 process

#45 sulcus

#50 facet

#54 septum

#41 tuberosity

#46 gyrus

#51 fossa

#55 raphe

#42 condyle

#47 foramen

#51 fundus

#56 ampulla

#43 epicondyle

#48 foramina

#52 hilum

#44 fissure

#49 meatus

#53 isthmus

3

Post-Lab 1 Questions

(2 points)

Last Name: _______________________  First Name: _______________________

  1. Give the name of the anatomical region to which each of the following structures belongs. (0.5 points)
    1. Elbow
    2. Back of the knee
    3. Belly button
    4. Heel
    5. Back of the neck

 

  1. Determine which body plane is described by each of the following scenarios. (0.5 points)
    1. If the human body were split into left and right halves.
    2. If the human body were split into anterior and posterior halves.
    3. If the human body were split into superior and inferior halves

 

  1. There are nine abdominal regions. Name the three consecutive regions that run down the center of the abdomen. (0.5 points)

 

  1. Fill in the blanks with the correct anatomical direction. (0.5 points)
    1. Phalanges (fingers) are ________________ to the carpals (wrist).
    2. The tibia (medial bone of the lower leg) is ________________ to the femur (large bone of the thigh).
    3. The sural region is ________________ to the crural region.
    4. The left and right iliac regions are ________________ to the hypogastric region of the abdominal cavity.
    5. The nose is ________________ to the ears.
    6. The abdomen is ________________ to the back.

II

Lab 2: Bones and Bone Markings

Lab 2: Bones and Bone Markings

Measurable Outcomes

  • Determine if a given bone is part of the axial or appendicular skeleton.
  • Ascertain the major bones of the skull, as well as any markings or unique features, the regions of the vertebral column, parts of a typical vertebra, along with the other bones and features of the axial skeleton.
  • Identify the bones of the appendicular skeleton and their unique features.
  • Designate bones as either left or right when applicable. Examples include the ulna, humerus, femurs, scapulas, and clavicles.
  • Understand how different bones fit together and articulate. Demonstrate this by assembling different regions of the body using the bones provided.
  • Differentiate compact, spongy and dry bone histology slides. This includes identifying the unique characteristics of each.
  • Demonstrate an adequate understand of the material in this section.

Background

The skeletal system is the primary structural organ system of the body. Many people think of the skeletal system as being static in that it is unchanging, however, this is not the case. Bones, like other organ systems, have specialized cells which allow them to perform a variety of essential tasks. Osteoblast are responsible for secreting the bony matrix necessary for bone formation. Osteoclast, meanwhile, are large multinucleated cells responsible for the dissolution and reabsorption of bone.  It is made mostly of collagen, which gives bone its soft framework, and calcium phosphate which adds strength and hardness to the structure. It is divided into the axial and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton consists of the skull, hyoid bone, vertebral column, sternum, and ribs. Whereas the appendicular skeleton consists of the clavicle, scapula and the rest of the upper and lower limbs. Without the foundational structure of the skeletal system, there would be nothing to support the body and provide points of attachment for muscles. Bones function to protect internal organs, assist body movements, store and release calcium and phosphorous, participate in blood cell production and store fat in the yellow marrow. Bones also function to protect internal organs, assist body movements, and the storage and release of ions such as calcium and phosphorous. Furthermore, long bones contain both hemopoietic (red) and stromal (yellow) marrow which produce red blood cells and fat cells respectively.  Each of these cells have specific functions that are key to the development and repair of a bone over time. The two types of bone tissue are compact and spongy bone. Compact bone is typically found along the perimeter of bones and makes up the majority of the diaphysis of long bones. It is stronger than spongy bone and provides more stability. Compact bone is made up of circular units called osteons. Osteons are composed of rings called lamellae that spiral down into a central canal, known as the Haversian canal. This central canal is the passage for nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatics. Spongy bone, on the other hand, is typically the deepest layer of a bone’s composition. It is made of trabeculae which give spongy bone its characteristic lighter weight. There are five classifications of bones based on their shape, long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones and sesamoid bones. The shape and composition of each bone allow them to function as mentioned above.

Vocabulary for Bones and Bone Markings on page(s) 161-162.

4

Pre-Lab 2

(5 points)

Last Name: _______________________  First Name: _______________________

 

Instructions:

Fill in the table with the appropriate terms. For the remaining illustrations, label the structures indicated.

(1 point)

Name of a structure is directional term to Name of the second structure
radius* is proximal to ulna*
femur is superior to
is inferior to thoracic vertebrae
patella is anterior to
is distal to metacarpals
tibia is medial to
is lateral to sternum

 

Label the cranial structures and bones. (0.5 points)

 

The lateral skull shows the large rounded brain case, zygomatic arch, and the upper and lower jaws. The zygomatic arch is formed jointly by the zygomatic process of the temporal bone and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone. The shallow space above the zygomatic arch is the temporal fossa. The space inferior to the zygomatic arch and deep to the posterior mandible is the infratemporal fossa.

 

Label the cranial bones and special features. (0.5 points)

 

The hard palate is formed anteriorly by the palatine processes of the maxilla bones and posteriorly by the horizontal plate of the palatine bones.

Label the distinctive parts of the vertebra. (0.5 points)

 

Vertebra Superior View Labeled Diagram

 

 

Label the features of the scapula. (0.5 point)

Label the features of the scapula

 

 

Label the features of the humerus. (0.5 points)

 

Label the features of the humerus by Anterior and Posterior view

Label the features of the radius and ulna. (0.5 point)

 

Bones of the pectoral girdle and upper limb

Label the features of the femur. (0.5 points)

Lower Limb Bone Anatomy Lower Limb Bones

 

Label the features of the tibia and fibula. (0.5 points)

Diagram Of Tibia And Fibula - Anterior View and Posterior View

5

Lab Activities

A list of words is provided below that you are expected to identify, learn, and label on the models provided. Note that not all models will have some of the organs/structures, so be sure to find them on an alternate model. You must use all the words provided. Using the colored tape provided, write the number that corresponds to the organ/structure and place them on your model. When complete, notify your TA so they may check your work.

For each additional station, directions will be provided for the activity.

 

Station One: Skull

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: For the following structures, be able to differentiate between left and right halves when applicable.

Bones of Skull

#1 frontal bone

#5 ethmoid bone

#9 zygomatic bone

#13 superior nasal conchae

#2 parietal bone

#6 sphenoid bone

#10 nasal bone

#14 middle nasal conchae

#3 temporal bone

#7 palatine bone

#11 vomer

#15 inferior nasal conchae

#4 occipital bone

#8 maxilla

#12 lacrimal bone

#16 mandible

Skull Bone Markings

#18 external auditory meatus

#20 styloid process

#22 cribriform plate of ethmoid bone

#24 zygomatic process of temporal bone

#19 mastoid process

#21 external occipital protuberance

#23 olfactory foramina

#25 temporal process of zygomatic bone

Special Features of Skull

#26 foramen magnum

#28 foramen ovale

#30 coronal suture

#32 lambdoid suture

#27 jugular foramen

#29 sella turcica

#31 sagittal suture

 

Station Two: Axial Skeleton cont.

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: For the following structures, be able to differentiate between left and right halves when applicable.

Vertebral Column

#1 hyoid Bone

#4 thoracic region

#7 coccyx

#2 vertebrae

#5 lumbar region

#8 intervertebral foramen

#3 cervical region

#6 sacrum

#9 intervertebral disc

Parts of Typical Vertebra

#10 body

#12 lamina

#14 transverse process

#16 inferior articular process

#18 facet of inferior articular process

#11 vertebral foramen

#13 spinous process

#15 superior articular process

#17 facet of superior articular process

Unique Cervical Vertebrae and Characteristics

#19 bifid spinous process

#21 atlas

#23 dens

#20 transverse foramen

#22 axis

Thoracic Cage

#24 sternum

#26 sternal body

#28 ribs

#25 manubrium

#27 xiphoid process

#29 costal cartilage

 

Station Three: Limb Assembly

In this station, you will be given a bucket filled with random bones some of which you will use to assemble an arm and a leg. Note below which bucket you are working with. Your assignment is to lay out the bones of each limb in their correct positions relative to each other and determine which bones do not belong to either limb.  Additionally, you will need to determine whether each limb is a right or left limb; circle your results below. When you are finished, ask your TA to check whether you have assembled and identified your limbs correctly.

Bucket # ________

Upper limb: Left / Right

Lower limb: Left / Right

 

Station 4: Histology

Sketch the slides available for today’s lab and specify the magnitude at which you are observing/ sketching. Be sure to identify and label your sketch with the corresponding structures listed beneath each slide.

 

Station Five: Upper Limbs

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: For the following structures, be able to differentiate between left and right halves when applicable.

Clavicle

#1 acromial end of clavicle

#2 sternal end of clavicle

Scapula

#3 glenoid cavity

#5 coracoid process

#7 supraspinous fossa

#9 subscapular fossa

#4 acromion

#6 spine of scapula

#8 infraspinous fossa

Humerus

#10 head

#13 lesser tubercle

#16 coronoid fossa

#19 lateral epicondyle

#11 neck

#14 trochlea

#17 radial fossa

#20 olecranon fossa

#12 greater tubercle

#15 capitulum

#18 medial epicondyle

Ulna

#21 head

#23 trochlear notch

#25 radial notch

#22 olecranon

#24 coronoid process

# 26 styloid process

Radius

#27 head

#29 radial tuberosity

#28 neck

#30 styloid process

Hand and Wrist

#31 carpals (8)

#33 phalanges

#35 middle phalanges

#32 metacarpals

#34 proximal phalanges

#36 distal phalanges

 

Station Six: Lower Limbs

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: For the following structures, be able to differentiate between left and right halves when applicable.

Pelvis

#1 ilium

#3 ischium

#5 pubis

#7 acetabulum

#2 iliac crest

#4 ischial spine

#6 pubic symphysis

Femur

#8 head

#11 lesser trochanter

#14 medial condyle

#9 neck

#12 medial epicondyle

#15 lateral condyle

#10 greater trochanter

#13 lateral epicondyle

#16 intercondylar fossa

# 17 patella

Tibia

#18 lateral condyle

#19 medial condyle

#20 medial malleolus

Fibula

#21 head

#22 lateral malleolus

Foot and Ankle

#23 tarsals (7)

#25 metatarsals

#27 proximal phalanges

#29 distal phalanges

#24 calcaneus

#26 phalanges

#28 middle phalanges

6

Post-Lab 2 Questions

(3 points)

Last Name: _______________________  First Name: _______________________

 

  1. Replace the common name of following bones with their corresponding anatomical names. (0.5 points)
    1. Fingers
    2. Hip
    3. Head
    4. Bones of the lower arm
    5. Knee
    6. Ankle
    7. Bone of the thigh
    8. Upper jaw
    9. Lower jaw
    10. Shins
    11. Tailbone
    12. Toes
    13. Collarbone
    14. Shoulder blade

 

  1. Name five bones of the axial and appendicular skeleton. (0.5 points)

 

  1. What makes the atlas (C1) and axis (C2) different from the rest of the vertebrae? (0.5 points)

 

 

 

  1. What is unique about the hyoid bone? (0.5 points)

 

 

 

  1. When a person is seated on the floor “criss-cross” style, which bones are touching the ground? (0.5 points)

 

 

 

  1. Name a bone that is inferior (1), superior (2) and medial (3) to the radius. (0.5 points)

III

Lab 3: Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves

Lab 3: Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves

Measurable Outcomes

  • Correctly identify the structures which constitute comprise the spinal cord and its extensions.
  • Explain the differences between the meninges.
  • Differentiate the spinal plexuses.
  • Determine the origin, pathway and target organs of the spinal nerves.
  • Classify the structures of the spinal cord on the given histology slides.
  • Demonstrate an adequate understand of the material in this section.

Background

The spinal cord is made of white matter encompassed by gray matter with a central canal running through it that serves as a path for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The gray matter is divided into posterior (dorsal) grey horns which contain sensory neurons, and lateral and anterior (ventral) horns that contain the cell bodies of motor neurons. The surrounding white matter is divided into anterior (ventral) white columns, lateral white columns, and posterior (dorsal) white columns. The grey commissure is the gray matter posterior to the central canal where the neurons from either side of the spinal cord crossover. The same principle applies to the white commissure which lies anteriorly to the gray matter.

The spinal cord has several layers to protect it from damage. Beginning superficially and working our way deeper, the vertebral column encases the spinal cord and provides a hard shell for protection. Deep to the vertebrae are the meninges, consisting of the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater. Extensions from the pia mater, the denticulate ligaments, suspend the spinal cord in CSF and act as a shock absorber.

The spinal cord begins at the terminal end of the brain stem and extends to approximately the L1 vertebra adults and L2 vertebrae in children; it is located within the vertebral foramen and is divided into 4 distinct regions.  The cervical segment extends from C1 to the C7 vertebrae. The thoracic segment extends from T1 to the T8 vertebrae. The lumbar segment corresponds with T9-T11 vertebrae. Finally, the sacral segment extends from T12 to L2. The cervical enlargement, C4-T1, is a bulbous structure from which many neurons of the upper extremities invaginate. Likewise, the lumbar enlargement, T9-T12, is a bulbous structure from which neurons that innervate the lower limbs originate.

Note: do not confuse the regions of the spine with the regions of the spinal cord, they are not the same.

There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves: 8 cervical pairs 12 thoracic pairs, 5 lumbar pairs, 5 sacral pairs and 1 coccygeal pair.  However, nerves from every other area along the spinal cord do not do this; they first converge in a network called a plexus. With the exception of the thoracic region, nerves of the cervical, brachial, lumbar and sacral regions of the spinal cord branch from a network of nerves known as plexuses.

Vocabulary for Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves can be found on page(s) 171-172.

7

Pre-Lab 3

(5 points)

Last Name: _______________________  First Name: _______________________

 

Instructions:

What region of the spinal cord lacks a nerve plexus? (1 point)

 

Label the structures of the brachial plexus? (1 point)

Label the structure of the spinal nerve. (1 point) 

Which segment of the spinal cord has the highest white to grey matter ratio; which region has the highest grey matter to white matter? (1 point)

 

 

 

 

Label the following structures of the spinal cord. (1 point)

 

 

 

8

Lab Activities

A list of words is provided below that you are expected to identify, learn, and label on the models provided. Note that not all models will have some of the organs/structures, so be sure to find them on an alternate model. You must use all the words provided. Using the colored tape provided, write the number that corresponds to the organ/structure and place them on your model. When complete, notify your TA so they may check your work.

For each additional station, directions will be provided for the activity.

.

 

Station One: Spinal Cord

Label the models of this station with the # that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the spinal cord and its protective structures using the colored tape. When you have finished, have your TA check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all of the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: For the following structures, be able to differentiate left and right halves when applicable.

#1 vertebral column

#4 dura mater

#7 subarachnoid space

#10 denticulate ligaments

#13 filum terminale

#2 spinal meninges

#5 subdural space

#8 cerebrospinal fluid

#11 spinal cord

#14 cauda equina

#3 epidural space

#6 arachnoid mater

#9 pia mater

#12 conus medullaris

Spinal Cord

#15 anterior median fissure

#19 posterior white columns

#23 anterior white commissure

#27 thoracic innervation segment

#31 lumbar enlargement

#16 posterior median sulcus

#20 anterior gray horns

#24 posterior gray commissure

#28 lumbar innervation segment

#17 anterior white columns

#21 lateral gray horns

#25 central canal

#29 sacral innervation segment

#18 lateral white columns

#22 posterior gray horns

#26 cervical innervation segment

#30 cervical enlargement

 

Station Two: Spinal Nerves and Cervical Plexus

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: For the following structures, be able to differentiate between left and right halves when applicable.

Spinal Nerves

#1 cervical nerve one (C1)

#9 thoracic nerve one (T1)

#17 thoracic nerve nine (T9)

#25 lumbar nerve five (L5)

#2 cervical nerve two (C2)

#10 thoracic nerve two (T2)

#18 thoracic nerve ten (T10)

#26 sacral nerve one (S1)

#3 cervical nerve three (C3)

#11 thoracic nerve three (T3)

#19 thoracic nerve eleven (T11)

#27 sacral nerve two (S2)

#4 cervical nerve four (C4)

#12 thoracic nerve four (T4)

#20 thoracic nerve twelve (T12)

#28 sacral nerve three (S3)

#5 cervical nerve five (C5)

#13 thoracic nerve five (T5)

#21 lumbar nerve one (L1)

#29 sacral nerve four (S4)

#6 cervical nerve six (C6)

#14 thoracic nerve six (T6)

#22 lumbar nerve two (L2)

#30 sacral nerve five (S5)

#7 cervical nerve seven (C7)

#15 thoracic nerve seven (T7)

#23 lumbar nerve three (L3)

#31 coccygeal nerve one (Coc1)

#8 cervical nerve eight (C8)

#16 thoracic nerve eight (T8)

#24 lumbar nerve four (L4)

Cervical plexus

Note: When labeling the nerves that exit the cervical plexus, focus on their location, the connections between the nerves of the plexus, and what they innervate. Also note any interesting characteristics you find, for example, which is the longest nerve? Make use of your textbook and atlas during this time.

#32 lesser occipital nerve

#34 transverse cervical nerve

#36 superior root of Ansa cervicalis nerve

#38 phrenic nerve

#33 great auricular nerve

#35 supraclavicular

#37 inferior root of Ansa cervicalis nerve

#39 segmental branches

 

Station Three: Brachial Plexus

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: When labeling the nerves that exit the brachial plexus, focus on their location, the connections between the nerves of the plexus and what they innervate. Also note any interesting characteristics you find, for example, which is the longest nerve? Make use of your textbook and atlas during this time.

#1 dorsal scapular nerve

#5 musculocutaneous nerve

#9 lower subscapular nerve

#13 medial pectoral nerve

#2 long thoracic nerve

#6 lateral pectoral nerve

#10 axillary nerve

#14 medial cutaneous nerve of arm

#3 nerve to subclavius

#7 upper subscapular nerve

#11 median nerve

#15 medial cutaneous nerve of forearm

#4 suprascapular nerve

#8 thoracodorsal nerve

#12 radial nerve

#16 ulnar nerve

 

Station 4: Histology

Sketch the slides available for today’s lab and specify the magnitude at which you are observing/ sketching. Be sure to identify and label your sketch with the corresponding structures listed beneath each slide.

 

Station Five: Lumbar Plexus

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: When labeling the nerves that exit the lumbar plexus, focus on their location, the connections between the nerves of the plexus and what they innervate. Also note any interesting characteristics you find, for example, which is the longest nerve? Make use of your textbook and atlas during this time.

#1 iliohypogastric nerve

#3 genitofemoral nerve

#5 femoral nerve

#2 ilioinguinal nerve

#4 lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh

#6 obturator nerve

 

Station Six: Sacral Plexus

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: When labeling the nerves that exit the sacral plexus, focus on their location, the connections between the nerves of the plexus and what they innervate. Also note any interesting characteristics you find, for example, which is the longest nerve? Make use of your textbook and atlas during this time.

#1 superior gluteal nerve

#4 nerve to quadratus

#7 posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh

#10 tibial median plantar nerve

#13 deep common fibular nerve

#2 inferior gluteal nerve

#5 nerve to obturator internus and superior gemellus

#8 pudenal nerve

#11 tibial lateral plantar nerve

#3 nerve to piriformis

#6 perforating cutaneous nerve

#9 sciatic nerve

#12 superficial common fibular nerve

9

Post-Lab 3 Questions

(2 points)

Last Name: _______________________  First Name: _______________________

 

  1. What is the longest nerve in the body? (0.5 points)

 

 

  1. In what region(s) of the spinal cord do the nerves which innervate the lower body originate? (0.5 points)

 

 

  1. The spinal cord is divided into how many segments? List the number of segments in each portion of the spinal column. (0.5 points)

 

 

  1. List the spinal meninges and the relevant spaces in between, as well as what occupies those spaces. (0.5 points)

 

IV

Lab 4: Brain and Cranial Nerves

Lab 4: Brain and Cranial Nerves

Measurable Outcomes

Background

The central nervous system entails all neurons of the brain and spinal cord. The brain is the central processing organ of the body and contains 100 billion neurons and a remarkable 1 trillion glial cells. It is estimated that cortical neurons alone consume around 5 billion ATP molecules per second. Whats more, some neurons can have axons that extend several feet. Unlike the spinal cord, the gray and white matter in the brain are arranged in three segments. From deep to superficial, the innermost region is made of gray matter which is surrounded by the myelinated axons of the white matter. The thin layer of the cerebral cortex responsible for higher order cognition is the outermost layer of gray matter. The brain is divided into four major regions, the brainstem, diencephalon, cerebellum, and cerebrum. The brainstem contains the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain (which houses the pineal gland). Caudal to the forebrain is the diencephalon, a region which contains the epithalamus,  hypothalamus, thalamus and third ventricle.

There are four cavities in the brain called ventricles; here cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced and circulated by ependymal cells and the choroid plexuses. The two largest ventricles lie within each cerebral hemispheres and are known as the lateral ventricles. Cerebrospinal fluid drains from the lateral ventricles, through the interventricular foramen and into the third ventricle. The third ventricle lies between the halves of the thalamus. From here, it flows through the cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of sylvius) and into the fourth ventricle, which lies between the cerebellum and the pons. Cerebrospinal fluid drains from the fourth ventricle, into the lateral and median apertures and down through the central canal of the spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid leaks out through foramina into the subarachnoid space where it is reabsorbed by veins on the surface of the brain and spinal cord.

Like the spinal cord, the brain is protected by three meninx, the dura, arachnoid and pia mater. Unlike the spinal meninges, the cranial dura mater is subdivided into two distinct layers; the periosteal layer, which is the superficial mot layer, and the inner meningeal dura mater. The two dural layers form the superior sagittal sinus which collectively channels venous blood from the brain. The falx cerebri divides the cerebrum into left and right hemispheres, the falx cerebelli divides the cerebellum into left and right hemispheres, and the tentorium cerebelli forms a physical barrier between the cerebrum and the cerebellum.

Vocabulary for the Brain and Cranial Nerves on page(s) 162-163.

10

Pre-lab 4

(5 points)

Last Name: _______________________  First Name: _______________________

 

Instructions:

Fill in the table below with the appropriate terms. For the remaining exercises, label the designated structures.

(1 point)

Name of a structure is directional term to Name of the second structure
pons* is anterior to cerebellum*
corpus callosum is superior to
is inferior to hypothalamus
precentral gyrus is anterior to
is superficial to diencephalon
interthalamic adhesion is medial to
is superior to pons

 

Label the sulci, gyri, and lobes of the cerebrum. (1 point)

Label to lobes of cerebral cortex

 

Label the major structures of the brain. (1 point)

Blank Sagittal Brain Diagram

 

 

Label the ventricles and passageway of CSF through the brain. (1 point)

Label the ventricles and passageway of CSF through the brain from the lateral and anterior view of brain ventricular system

Label the cranial nerves. (1 point)

 

Blank space to label the structure of the cranial nerve brain diagram

11

Lab Activities

A list of words is provided below that you are expected to identify, learn, and label on the models provided. Note that not all models will have some of the organs/structures, so be sure to find them on an alternate model. You must use all the words provided. Using the colored tape provided, write the number that corresponds to the organ/structure and place them on your model. When complete, notify your TA so they may check your work.

For each additional station, directions will be provided for the activity.

 

Station One: Brain

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: For the following structures, be able to differentiate between left and right halves when applicable.

Cerebrum

#1 cerebral cortex

#3 temporal lobes

#5 occipital lobe

#2 frontal lobe

#4 parietal lobes

#6 insula

Diencephalon

#7 thalamus

#9 mammillary bodies

#11 pineal glands

#8 hypothalamus

#10 epithalamus

Brainstem

#12 midbrain

#14 superior colliculi

#16 cerebral peduncles

#18 medulla oblongata

#13 tectum (corpora quadrigemina)

#15 inferior colliculi

#17 pons

Cerebellum

#19 arbor vitae

#21 vermis

#20 folia

#22 cerebellar peduncles

Other important structures

#23 basal nuclei

#25 fornix

#27 pituitary gland

#29 optic chiasm

#24 corpus callosum

#26 cingulate gyrus

#28 infundibulum

 

Station Two: Unique Features and Pathway of CSF

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: For the following structures, be able to differentiate between left and right halves when applicable.

Composition of the Brain

#1 gray matter

#2 white matter

Superficial Characteristics of the Brain

#3 gyri (convulsions)

#5 sulci

#7 postcentral gyrus

#9 central sulcus

#11 transverse fissure

#4 fissures

#6 precentral gyrus

#8 lateral cerebral sulcus

#10 parieto-occiptal sulcus

#12 longitudinal fissure

Cranial Meninges

These features may not be shown on models, but it is important to be able to identify them in diagrams and on the brains that you will dissect.

#13 dura mater

#15 falx cerebelli

#17 arachnoid mater

#14 falx cerebri

#16 tentorium cerebelli

#18 pia mater

Ventricles and Associated Structures

Using the terms in the table below, determine the pathway of cerebrospinal fluid.

#19 lateral ventricles

#21 interventricular foramen

#23 cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of midbrain)

#25 choroid plexuses

#20 septum pellucidum

#22 third ventricles

#24 fourth ventricles

#26 cerebrospinal fluid

 

Station Three: Cranial Nerves

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

While learning the names, corresponding numbers and location of each of the cranial nerves, be sure to connect these to their functions and the structures they innervate.

#1 olfactory nerve (I)

#4 trochlear nerve (IV)

#7 facial nerve (VII)

#10 vagus nerve (X)

#2 optic nerve (II)

#5 trigeminal nerve (V)

#8 vestibulocochlear/ acoustic nerve (VIII)

#11 Accessory/spinal nerve (XI)

#3 oculomotor nerve (III)

#6 abducens nerve (VI)

#9 glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)

#12 hypoglossal nerve (XII)

 

Station 4: Histology

Sketch the slides available for today’s lab and specify the magnitude at which you are observing/ sketching. Be sure to identify and label your sketch with the corresponding structures listed beneath each slide.

 

 

Station Five: Brain Dissection without Meninges

*If you are the last table to use this station, be sure to clean off the dissection kits in the lab sink.

 

Station Six: Brain Dissection with Meninges

*If you are the last table to use this station, be sure to clean off the dissection kits in the lab sink.

12

Post-Lab 4 Questions

(3 points)

Last Name: _______________________  First Name: _______________________

 

  1. Which of the following structures are not part of the brainstem? (Circle the appropriate response(s)) (0.5 points)
    • Cerebral hemisphere
    • Cerebellum
    • Pons
    • Medulla oblongata
    • Midbrain
    • Diencephalon

 

  1. What are the three primary parts of the diencephalon? (0.5 points)

 

 

  1. Identify the meningeal (or associated) structures described below: (1 point)
    1. Outermost meninx that covers the brain and is composed of tough, fibrous connective tissue
    2. Location of CSF production
    3. Innermost meninx that covers the brain
    4. Structures instrumental in returning cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the venous blood in the dural venous sinuses
    5. A dural fold separating the cerebrum from the cerebellum

 

  1. Provide the name and number of the cranial nerves involved in each of the following activities, sensations or disorders. (1 point)
    1. ____________________  Rotating the head
    2. ____________________  Smelling coffee
    3. ____________________  Elevating the eyelids; pupillary constriction
    4. ____________________  Slowing the heart; swallowing
    5. ____________________  Involved in Bell’s palsy (facial paralysis); crying
    6. ____________________  Chewing food; feeling a toothache
    7. ____________________  Listening to music; seasickness
    8. ____________________  Secretion of saliva; tasting well-seasoned food
    9. ____________________  Involved in “rolling” the eyes (three nerves; provide numbers only)
    10. ____________________  Swallowing; speaking (motor only)
    11. ____________________  Seeing the PowerPoint during lecture

 

V

Lab 5: Special Senses

Lab 5: Special Senses

Measurable Outcomes

  • Explain the function of each special sense.
  • Identify all of the provided anatomical structures of the special senses on available models.
  • Determine the pathways of vision, hearing, balance, taste, and olfaction.
  • Correctly identify the histology slides and the structures that can be differentiated on each.
  • Determine the structures of the dissected eye.
  • Demonstrate the ability to count the taste buds of a lab partner using the experiment provided.
  • Demonstrate an adequate understand of the material in this section.

Background

In anatomy, special senses are the senses that have organs specifically devoted to them such as vision, gustation, olfaction, audition, and equilibrioception. These senses have specialized organs that detect and process stimuli and send signals to the brain which lead to the perception of that stimulus. These specialized organs include the tongue, the nose, the eyes and the ears.

The tongue is a crucial organ in mechanical digestion and taste. Taste buds contain taste receptor cells which are the smallest functional unit in gustation. Taste buds can be found throughout the length of the upper digestive tract. On the surface of the tongue are protrusions called papillae. Circumvallate papillae are arranged in a v shape pattern on toward the base of the tongue, on the dorsal aspect, and contain more than 100 taste buds each. The fungiform papillae are found all over the dorsal aspect of the tongue and contain only about 5 taste buds each. The foliate papillae are found on the lateral aspects of the tongue and only contain taste buds during childhood. Finally, there are the filiform papillae which, like the fungiform papillae, are found all over the tongue, however, they do not contain taste buds.  Instead, their barbed shape provides the friction for moving food around during mastication.

The olfactory epithelium is easily discernable on most models. Unlike any of the following special senses, neurons from the olfactory bulb bypass the thalamus and synapse directly with the olfactory cortex.

The ear is a complex organ which houses special structures that allow us to hear, balance and orientate ourselves. Sound waves are collected by the auricle and funneled into the external acoustic meatus. The ear is divided into three sections, the outer, middle, and inner ear. The outer ear consists of the auricle which extends through the external auditory canal and terminates at the tympanic membrane. The main structures of the middle ear are the auditory ossicles, Eustachian tube, oval window and round window. The auditory ossicles inward from the tympanic membrane, are the malleus, incus, and stapes. The base of the stapes covers the oval window which allows sound waves to pass from the tympanic membrane, into the cochlea of the inner ear. The inner ear is the innermost region of the ear where the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals are.   The cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals are responsible for hearing, static and dynamic equilibrium respectively. The vestibulocochlear nerve branches,  into the cochlear branch, which innervates the cochlea, and the vestibular branch which innervates the vestibule and semicircular canals.

The eye is the specialized organ of sight which has three principal layers, the fibrous tunic, the vascular tunic and the neural tunic. Furthermore, there are two main chambers, the anterior chamber, containing aqueous humor and the posterior chamber, that contains vitreous humor.  In the neural tunic of the retina, light propagates from the ganglionic cells through the bipolar cells to the rods and cons, which, somewhat paradoxically hyperpolarize opposite the direction of light.

The lacrimal apparatus frames the eye and coats the sclera and cornea in lacrimal fluid, a bacteriacide, which lubricates and protects them. The lacrimal apparatus is made of the lacrimal gland, lacrimal canaliculi, lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct. This network of structures allows tears produced by the lacrimal gland to cover the eye, drain through the lacrimal puncta into the lacrimal canaliculi, collect in the lacrimal sac, travel down the nasolacrimal duct and finally empty into the nose. This is why crying leads to a runny nose.

Vocabulary for Special Senses can be found on page(s) 169-171.

13

Pre-lab 5

(5 points)

Last Name: _______________________  First Name: _______________________

 

Instructions:

Fill in the table below with the appropriate terms. For the remaining exercises, label the structures accordingly.

(1 point)

Name of a structure is directional term to Name of the second structure
retina* is posterior to lens*
middle nasal conchae is superior to
is inferior to cribriform plate
cornea is anterior to
is distal to tympanic membrane
medial rectus is medial to
is lateral to tongue

 

Label the structures of the olfactory epithelium and olfactory pathway. (1 point)

 

 

Predefined markings to Label the structures of the olfactory epithelium and olfactory pathway

 

Label the types of papillae and parts of the taste buds. (1 point)

 

Predefined space to Label the types of papillae and parts of sensory cells and taste buds

 

Label the regions and structures of the ear. (1 point)

 

Predefined space to Label the regions and structures of Human Anatomy Ear

 

Label the muscles of the eye. (0.5 points)

 

Predefined space to Label the muscles of the eye from the lateral and anterior view

 

 

Label the structures and regions of the eye. (0.5 points)

 

Predefined space to Label the structures and regions of the Human Eye Anatomy

 

14

Lab Activities

A list of words is provided below that you are expected to identify, learn, and label on the models provided. Note that not all models will have some of the organs/structures, so be sure to find them on an alternate model. You must use all the words provided. Using the colored tape provided, write the number that corresponds to the organ/structure and place them on your model. When complete, notify your TA so they may check your work.

For each additional station, directions will be provided for the activity.

Station One: Are You a Super Taster?

Note: if your lab does not permit the use of food items in the lab, leave the room before conducting this experiment.

Subject #1: ____________________________

Number of taste buds: ___________________

Tasting abilities: ________________________

 

Subject #2: ____________________________

Number of taste buds: ___________________

Tasting abilities: ________________________

Station Two: Taste and Smell

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: For the following structures, be able to differentiate between left and right halves when applicable.

Tongue and Associated Structures

#1 lingual tonsils

#4 fungiform papillae

#7 circumvallate papillae

#2 palatine tonsils

#5 filiform papillae

#8 taste bud

#3 lingual papillae

#6 foliate papillae

#9 taste pore

Taste Pathway

#10 facial nerve (CN VII)

#12 vagus nerve (CN X)

#14 primary gustatory area

#11 glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)

#13 thalamus

Nose

#15 superior nasal conchae

#19 middle nasal meatus

#23 cribriform plate of ethmoid bone

#16 middle nasal conchae

#20 inferior nasal meatus

#24 olfactory foramina

#17 inferior nasal conchae

#21 olfactory epithelium

#18 superior nasal meatus

#22 olfactory glands

Olfactory Pathway

#25 olfactory epithelium

#27 olfactory nerve (CN I)

#29 olfactory tract

#26 olfactory receptors

#28 olfactory bulb

#30 primary olfactory area of the cerebral cortex

 

Station Three: Hearing

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: For the following structures, be able to differentiate between left and right halves when applicable.

Outer Ear

#1 auricle (pinna)

#3 lobule

#5 external auditory canal

#7 tympanic membrane

#2 helix

#4 external auditory meatus

#6 ceruminous glands

Middle Ear

#8 auditory ossicles

#10 incus

#12 Eustachian tube

#14 round window

#9 malleus

#11 stapes

#13 oval window

Inner Ear

#15 bony labyrinth

#18 cochlea

#21 utricle

#16 semicircular canals

#19 membranous labyrinth

#22 saccule

#17 vestibule

#20 semicircular canals

#23 organ of corti

Auditory Pathway

#24 vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII)

#25 primary auditory area of the cerebral cortex

 

Station Four: Histology

Sketch the slides available for today’s lab and specify the magnitude at which you are observing/ sketching. Be sure to identify and label your sketch with the corresponding structures listed beneath each slide.

 

Station Five: Eye Dissection

*If you are the last table to use this station, be sure to clean off the dissection kits in the lab sink.

 

Station Six: Vision

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Fibrous Tunic

#1 sclera

#2 cornea

Vascular Tunic

#3 iris

#5 lens

#7 ciliary body

#4 pupil

#6 choroid

Neural Tunic

#8 retina

#12 pigmented layer

#16 bipolar cells

#9 optic disc

#13 neural layer

#17 horizontal cells

#10 macula lutea

#14 rods

#18 ganglion cells

#11 fovea centralis

#15 cones

Visual Pathway

#20 optic nerve

#22 optic tract

#21 optic chiasm

#23 primary visual area of the cerebral cortex

Eye Interior

#24 anterior chamber

#26 posterior chamber

#25 aqueous humor

#27 vitreous humor (body)

Muscles of the Eye

#28 levator palpebrae superioris

#30 inferior rectus

#32 medial rectus

#34 inferior oblique

#29 superior rectus

#31 lateral rectus

#33 superior oblique

Lacrimal Apparatus

#35 lacrimal gland

#36 superior lacrimal canaliculi

#38 lacrimal sac

#36 lacrimal puncta

#37 inferior lacrimal canaliculi

#39 nasolacrimal duct

Conjunctiva

#40 palpebral conjunctiva

#41 bulbar conjunctiva

15

Post-Lab 5 Questions

(3 point)

Last Name: _______________________  First Name: _______________________

 

  1. List the structures in each layer of the eye. (0.5 points)
    • Fibrous tunic:
    • Vascular tunic:
    • Neural tunic:

 

  1. What is the olfactory pathway, starting from odorant to the primary olfactory area? How does this pathway differ from other sensory pathways? (0.5 points)

 

  1. Match the following structures with their corresponding descriptions. (1 point)

    Name of Structure Descriptions No. of Structure
    1. Optic disc an area where odorants bind to receptors to produce a sensation that will be perceived as smell
    2. Round window contains approximately 100 taste buds
    3. Fungiform papillae location of no visual activity, known as the “blind spot”
    4. Vitreous humor contains the organs that sense dynamic equilibrium
    5. Olfactory epithelium contains the organs that sense static equilibrium
    6. Filiform papillae jelly-like mass that provides stability and structure to the eye
    7. Semicircular canals provide friction, contains no taste buds
    8. Retina contains approximately 5 taste buds
    9. Auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes) the smallest bones in the body; transmits vibrations that are key to hearing
    10. Circumvallate papillae possess the following layers to allow for the transmission of stimuli to the optic nerve; pigmented layer, photoreceptor layer, outer synaptic layer, bipolar cell layer, inner synaptic layer, ganglion layer
    11. Vestibule membrane between the inner and middle ear to allow for pressure changes to equilibrate

     

  2. Describe the path of sound traveling through the ear to CN (VIII). (list structures)(0.5 points)

 

 

 

  1. Describe the function of the following muscles. Do they assist in intorsion, extortion, abduction, adduction, elevation and/or depression of the eye? (0.5 points)
    1. Superior Rectus-
    2. Inferior Rectus-
    3. Medial Rectus-
    4. Lateral Rectus-
    5. Superior Oblique-
    6. Inferior Oblique-

VI

Lab 6: Respiratory System

16

Lab 6: Respiratory System

Measurable Outcomes

Background

The respiratory system is responsible for the gas exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The main specialized organs of this process are the lungs which house clusters of sac-like structures known as alveoli. There are from 480 to 790 million alveoli which increase the efficiency of gas exchange by increasing surface area to around 118m2 in men and 91m2 in women. The respiratory system consists of the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli, along with their accessory structures. These structures are divided into the upper and lower respiratory systems, with the lower portion beginning at the larynx. The primary function of this system is to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the environment. Functionally, the respiratory system can be divided into the conducting zone, terminating at the terminal bronchioles; then air flows into the respiratory zone, where the actual gas exchange occurs.

Though we view each system individually in this lab, it is important to keep in mind that all organ systems overlap and work together in such a way that scientist are constantly discovering new connections. One such example is the nose. Not only is it the primary entrance and exit for respiration, but it also contains the olfactory epithelium, the primary structure of one of the special senses, olfaction. Likewise, the pharynx is a structure shared by both the respiratory and digestion systems.

Although both lungs functionally participate in respiration, they differ physically in various ways. The right lung is shorter and wider than the left lung, and the left lung occupies a smaller volume than the right. Another distinction between the two lungs is that the left lung contains the cardiac notch, which makes space for the heart. Furthermore, whereas the right lung has three lobes, the left lung has only two.

Though not visible on every model, each lung is surrounded by the pleura, which consists of two layers called the visceral and parietal pleurae. They are important because they lubricate the lungs and reduce friction during inhalation and exhalation.

Vocabulary for Respiratory System can be found on page(s) 169.

17

Pre-Lab 6

(5 points)

Last Name: _______________________  First Name: _______________________

 

Instructions:

Fill in the table below with the appropriate terms. For the remaining exercises, label the designated structures.

(1 point)

Name of a structure is directional term to Name of the second structureEpiglottis
Epiglottis*   is Superior to Vocal cords*  
 Hyoid bone is Anterior to
is Inferior to Cricoid cartilage
Carina is Medial to
is Directly Superficial to Conus elasticus

 

List two structures of the respiratory zone? (0.5 points)

 

 

List two structures of the conducting zone? (0.5 points) 

 

 

 

Label the following structures of the larynx.  (1 point)

 

 

Label the following structures or the respiratory system. (1 point) 

 

 

Label the following structures in the sagittal view of the upper respiratory system. (1 point)

18

Lab Activities

A list of words is provided below that you are expected to learn and label on the models provided. Note that not all models will have some of the organs/structures, so be sure to find them on an alternate model. You must use all the words provided. Using the colored tape provided, write the number that corresponds to the organ/structure and place it on your model. When complete, notify your TA so they may check your work.

For each additional station, directions will be provided for the activity.

 

Station One: Upper Respiratory

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

#1 nose

#6 septal nasal cartilage

#12 nasal conchae*

#16 laryngopharynx

#21 soft palate

#2 root

#7 major alar cartilages

#12 nasal meatuses*

#17 lingual tonsils

#22 uvula

#3 bridge

#8 minor cartilages

#13 pharynx

#18 palatine tonsils

#4 apex

#9 external naris

#14 nasopharynx

#19 pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid)

#5 lateral nasal cartilages

#10 nasal cavity

#15 oropharynx

#20 hard palate

*There are Superior, Middle, and Inferior parts to these structures.

 

Station Two: Lower Respiratory

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

#1 larynx

#8 corniculate cartilages

#15 esophagus

#22 alveolar sacs

#29 middle lobe

#2 epiglottis

#9 cuneiform cartilage

#16 carina

#23 alveoli

#30 cardiac notch

#3 vestibular folds

#10 cricothyroid ligament

#17 primary (main) bronchi

#24 L/R lungs

#31 horizontal fissure

#4 vocal folds

#11 cricoid cartilage

#18 secondary (lobar) bronchi

#25 apex of lung

#32 oblique fissure

#5 thyrohyoid membrane

#12 cricotracheal ligament

#19 tertiary (segmental) bronchi

#26 base of lung

#33 hilum

#6 thyroid cartilage

#13 tracheal cartilages

#20 respiratory bronchioles

#27 superior lobe

#7 arytenoid cartilages

#14 trachea

#21 alveolar ducts

#28 inferior lobe

 

Station Three: Muscles of Respiration

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Muscles of Inspiration

#1 diaphragm

#2 external intercostals

#3 scalenes

#4 sternocleidomastoid

*Make note of which muscles are the primary muscles of inhalation, and which are the accessory muscles.

Muscles of Exhalation

#5 internal intercostals

#6 external oblique

#7 internal oblique

#8 transverse abdominis

#9 rectus abdominis

 

Station Four: Histology

Sketch the slides available for today’s lab and specify the magnitude at which you are observing/ sketching. Be sure to identify and label your sketch with the corresponding structures listed beneath each slide.

Blank Space to sketch the structure of Lung - Terminal bronchioles, Respiratory bronchioles, Alveolar ducts, Alveolar sacs, Alveoli

Lung
Terminal bronchioles, Respiratory bronchioles, Alveolar ducts, Alveolar sacs, Alveoli

 

Station Five: Lung Dissection

*If you are the last table to use this station, be sure to clean off the dissection kits in the lab’s sink.

 

Station Six: Flow of Oxygen and Pulmonary Circulation

As a group, determine the path that oxygen travels starting from the nostrils to the alveoli. Be sure to identify where along that path each of the structures on the vocabulary list is located.

As a group, determine the route of pulmonary circulation. Be mindful of the fact that several structures are directly connected to the heart. Label the models/posters of this station with the # that corresponds to the appropriate vessels involved in pulmonary circulation using the colored tape. When you have finished, have your TA check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all of the labels you have placed on the models/posters.

#1 pulmonary trunk

#2 pulmonary arteries

#3 pulmonary capillaries

#4 pulmonary veins

19

Post-Lab 6 Questions

(2 points)

Last Name: _______________________ First Name: _______________________

 

1) Write a C if the listed structure is part of the conducting zone and an R if it is part of the respiratory zone. Also, label whether the structure is part of the upper respiratory (U) or lower respiratory system (L). (0.5 point)

Example: Larynx        C      ,        L       

Alveoli ________________

Trachea ________________

Nasal cavity ________________

Bronchi ________________

Respiratory bronchioles ________________

Pharynx ________________

Alveolar ducts ________________

Terminal bronchioles ________________

 

2) Write the route that oxygen takes from when you inhale to the point of gas exchange with carbon dioxide. (0.5 point)

 

 

 

 

 

 

3) Give two unique characteristics of the pulmonary artery and vein. (0.5 point)

 

 

 

 

 

 

4) Describe the route of pulmonary circulation. (0.5 point)

 

 

VII

Lab 7: The Cardiovascular system

20

Lab 7: The Cardiovascular system

Measurable Outcomes

Background

The cardiovascular system is responsible for the circulation of blood and transport of nutrients.  Large multicellular organisms developed such a system as a means of actively transporting nutrients to the cells of the body. The heart is the organ of focus in this lab. It is divided into four distinct chambers, which in concert work to circulate blood. When the heart beats, it pumps blood into two different circuits: pulmonary and systemic. Pulmonary circulation carries blood from the right side of the heart to the alveoli of the lungs and back to the left side of the heart, while the systemic circulation carries blood from the left side of the heart to all the organs and tissues of the body, then back to the right side of the heart. If it were possible to stretch out all of the blood vessels in the body, they would measure 60,000 to 100,000 miles, enough circle the earth roughly four times. The heart is an incredible organ capable, on average, of circulating roughly 2,000 gallons worth of blood each day. Furthermore, the heart is one of the few organs capable of operating entirely apart from the central nervous system which makes it one of the hardest working organs.

Blood is classified as liquid connective tissue and is vital in its roles of transportation, regulation, and protection. It is made of distinct types of cells, mostly derived from bone marrow, and helps maintain homeostasis. Plasma and cellular elements are the two main components of blood, where plasma makes up 55% of blood and cellular elements make up 45%. Plasma is mostly water but contains proteins and other solutes as well. The vast majority of cell elements are erythrocytes with less than 1% comprising of leukocytes and platelets.

In this lab we will focus on the major blood vessels of the cardiovascular system. Arteries are blood vessels that always carry blood away from the heart; the blood they carry is oxygenated (exception: pulmonary arteries). They generally have thicker walls than veins, the other major blood vessels in the cardiovascular system. Veins carry blood toward the heart and carry deoxygenated blood (exception: pulmonary veins). Both vessel types are formed by the tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica adventitia.

Vocabulary for the Cardiovascular System can be found on page(s) 163-165.

21

Pre-lab 7

(5 points)

Last Name: _______________________ First Name: _______________________

 

Instructions:

Fill in the table below with the appropriate terms. For the remaining exercises, label the structures accordingly.

(1 point)

Name of a structure is directional term to Name of the second structure
pulmonary vein is proximal to right ventricle
auricle is superior to
is inferior to heart’s base
anterior interventricular sulcus is anterior to
is distal to ascending aorta
heart is medial to
is lateral to left ventricle

 

Label the prominent coronary surface vessels. (0.5 points)

Label the prominent coronary surface vessels from the Anterior view of heart

 

 

Label the prominent coronary surface vessels. (0.5 points)

Label the prominent coronary surface vessels from the Posterior view of the heart

 

 

Label the internal formations of the heart. (1 point)

 

Predefined space to Label the internal formations of the heart

 

 

Label the surface features of the anterior aspect of the heart. (0.5 points)

Predefined space to Label the surface features of the anterior aspect of the heart

 

 

Label the surface features on the posterior aspect of the heart. (0.5 points)

Predefined space to Label the surface features on the posterior aspect of the heart

 

 

Label the major systemic arteries of the body. (0.5 points)

Predefined space to Label the major systemic arteries of the human body

 

Label the major systemic veins of the body. (0.5 points)

Predefined space to Label the major systemic veins of the human body

22

Lab Activities

A list of words is provided below that you are expected to identify, learn, and label on the models provided. Note that not all models will have some of the organs/structures, so be sure to find them on an alternate model. You must use all the words provided. Using the colored tape provided, write the number that corresponds to the organ/structure and place them on your model. When complete, notify your TA so they may check your work.

For each additional station, directions will be provided for the activity.

 

Station One: Heart

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: For the following structures, be able to differentiate between left and right halves when applicable.

Orientation

#1 apex

#2 base

Layers

#3 pericardium

#4 epicardium

#5 endocardium

#6 myocardium

Surface Features

#7 superior vena cava

#10 left pulmonary artery

#13 ascending aorta

#16 posterior interventricular sulcus

#8 right pulmonary artery

#11 coronary sulcus

#14 descending aorta

#17 epicardial fat

#9 inferior vena cava

#12 arch of aorta

#15 anterior interventricular sulcus

#18 auricles

Internal Structures

#19 papillary muscles

#23 tricuspid valve

#27 right atrium

#31 left ventricle

#20 pectinate muscles

#24 bicuspid valve

#28 left atrium

#32 interventricular septum

#21 chordae tendineae

#25 pulmonary valve

#29 interatrial septum

#33 right bundle branches

#22 trabeculae carneae

#26 aortic valve

#30 right ventricle

#34 left bundle branches

Coronary Circulation – Arteries

#35 coronary arteries

#37 posterior interventricular branch

#39 circumflex branch

#41 branch of left coronary artery

#36 marginal branches

#38 right pulmonary artery

#40 anterior interventricular branch

#42 middle cardiac

Coronary Circulation – Veins

#43 coronary sinus

#45 great cardiac

#47 left pulmonary

#44 anterior cardiac

#46 small cardiac

#48 right pulmonary

 

Station Two: Major Upper Body Vessels

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: For the following structures, be able to differentiate between left and right halves when applicable.

Arterial Circulation

#1 brachiocephalic trunk

#6 vertebral arteries

#11 anterior cerebral artery

#16 thoracic aorta

#2 common carotid arteries

#7 basilar artery

#12 anterior communicating artery

#17 abdominal aorta

#3 internal carotid arteries

#8 posterior cerebral artery

#13 axillary arteries

#4 external carotid arteries

#9 posterior communicating artery

#14 radial arteries

#5 subclavian arteries

#10 middle cerebral artery

#15 ulnar arteries

Venous Circulation

#18 brachiocephalic veins

#22 axillary veins

#26 medial cubital veins

#30 azygos vein

#19 internal jugular veins

#23 brachial veins

#27 radial veins

#31 hemiazygos vein

#20 subclavian veins

#24 cephalic veins

#28 ulnar veins

#32 accessory hemiazygos vein

#21 external jugular veins

#25 basilic veins

#29 median antebrachial veins

 

Station Three: Major Lower Body Vessels

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: For the following structures, be able to differentiate between left and right halves when applicable.

Arterial Circulation

#1 suprarenal arteries

#6 celiac trunk

#11 external iliac arteries

#16 anterior tibial arteries

#2 renal arteries

#7 common hepatic artery

#12 internal iliac arteries

#17 posterior tibial arteries

#3 gonadal arteries

#8 splenic artery

#13 femoral arteries

#18 fibular arteries

#4 inferior mesenteric artery

#9 lumbar arteries

#14 deep femoral arteries

#5 superior mesenteric artery

#10 common iliac arteries

#15 popliteal arteries

Venous Circulation

#19 ascending lumbar veins

#24 hepatic portal veins

#30 common iliac veins

#35 popliteal veins

#20 gonadal veins

#25 inferior mesenteric vein

#31 internal iliac veins

#36 small saphenous veins

#21 renal veins

#26 splenic vein

#32 external iliac veins

#37 anterior tibial veins

#22 suprarenal veins

#27 superior mesenteric vein

#33 femoral veins

#38 fibular veins

#23 hepatic veins

#28 inferior phrenic vein

#34 great saphenous veins

 

Station Four: Histology &  Differential Blood Count 

Sketch the slides available for today’s lab and specify the magnitude at which you are observing/ sketching. Be sure to identify and label your sketch with the corresponding structures listed beneath each slide.

Blood Vessels

Blood Components

Sketch the Structure of Erythrocyte in the provided spaceErythrocyte

Leukocytes

Sketch the Structure of monocyte in the provided space

Monocyte

Cardiac

Sketch the Structure of Cardiac Muscle in the provided space

Cardiac muscle

Differential Blood count 

Note: Platlets may not be visible at this magnification

 

Station Five: Heart Dissection

*If you are the last table to use this station, be sure to clean off the dissection kits in the lab’s sink.

 

Station Six: Flow of Blood and Blood Typing

As a group, determine the flow of blood through the various structures and vessels of the heart. Be sure to identify where along that path each of the structures on the vocabulary list is located. Use the rest of this page to draw out the pathway.

As a group, determine the different blood type in this station. Follow the procedure below in order to do so.

23

Post-Lab 7 Questions

(3 points)

Last Name: _______________________  First Name: _______________________

 

  1. List the function of each cardiac layer and number the order from most to least superficial. (0.5 point)
    • Pericardium:
    • Myocardium:
    • Endocardium:
    • Epicardium:

 

  1. Explain why the left ventricle’s walls are thicker than the right ventricle’s. (0.5 point)

 

 

 

  1. A child is stung by a bee and experiences an anaphylactic reaction. Upon observing the pathology, you notice a large increase in the number of very large granulocytic white blood cells whose granules obscure the nucleus. What type of cell did you observe? (0.5 point)

 

 

 

  1. Correctly match the term with the correct order of blood flow through the heart. (0.5 point)

    Venous blood enters the ______ from the ________ and ________ as well as the coronary sinus, which converge into the the ________. From there blood passes the _______ valves and enters the _______. The venous blood passes through the _______ and from there branches off into the _______ and ______ before circulating through the _____. After being oxygenatated, the blood re-enters the heart through the ________ which converge into the _______. Then the blood flows through the _______ into the ________. From here, blood is ejected through the ________ into the ______ before entering the _______ and finally systemic circulation.

     

      1. Superior vena cava
      2. Inferior vena cava
      3. Right atrium
      4. Left atrium
      5. Lungs
      6. Pulmonary veins
      7. Left pulmonary artery
      8. Right pulmonary artery
      9. Right atrioventricular valve
      10. Mitral valves
      11. Ascending aorta
      12. Arch of aorta
      13. Aortic semilunar valve
      14. Pulmonary semilunar valve
      15. Left ventricle
      16. Right ventricle
      17. Heart

     

  1. What is the anatomical significance of the pericardium and epicardial fat? The visceral layer of the pericardium is also known as the _________________? (0.5 point)

 

 

 

  1. An individual who cannot coagulate properly is at risk of bleeding out with any significant lesion. A reduction in what type of cell might cause this in such an individual? How does this affect the composition of their blood? (0.5 point)

VIII

Lab 8: Digestive System

24

Lab 8: Digestive System

Measurable Outcomes

Background

The digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract (also known as the alimentary canal), a hollow muscular tube extending from the mouth to the anus, and accessory organs, including the liver and pancreas.  Technically, until food is absorbed in the intestines it is considered to be outside of the body. To promote absorption, the intestines have villi which contain hair-like structures called microvilli. Like the alveoli of the lungs, microvilli substantially increase the surface area of the intestines to between 180 to 300 m2 (the size of the average American home).  Major structures of the gastrointestinal tract include the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus. These structures and organs form a  hollow space from mouth to anus and function to chemically and mechanically catabolize and absorb nutrients. Along the way organs such as the salivary glands, liver, gallbladder and pancreas release enzymes to aid digestion and are known collectively as accessory structures.

The organs of the GI tract are made from four layers, the inner lining or mucosa, the submucosa containing blood vessels and lymphatics, the muscularis or smooth muscle layer, and the outermost layer or serosa/adventitia. Each layer plays a vital role in the digestive system ranging in their capacity to form a protective barrier from the highly acidic contents of the stomach to supplying hormones, producing muscle contractions and draining lymph. Furthermore, specialized cells such as the foveolar, chief cells of the stomach are supporting cells which produce a protective layer of mucus and gastric acid for digestion. Other supporting cells, such as the gastric parietal cells of the stomach and the ductal and acinar cells of the pancreas release zymogens, inactive forms of digestive enzymes.

The peritoneum is a large serous membrane which lines the abdominal cavity and coverers most of the digestive organs. some organs are only partially covered by the peritoneum while others are entirely uncovered. These organs are referred to as being retroperitoneal. Formed by the double folding of the peritoneum is a continuous set of tissues known as the mesentery. This organ was relatively recently reclassified as an organ after discovering its complex constitution. The mesentery houses lymphatic vessels as well as providing a conduit for the blood vessels for the small and large intestines.

Vocabulary for Digestive System can be found on page(s) 165-166.

25

Pre-Lab 8

(5 points)

Last Name: _______________________  First Name: _______________________

 

Instructions:

Fill in the table below with the appropriate terms. For the remaining exercises, label the structures accordingly.

(1 point)

Name of a structure is directional term to Name of the second structure
gallbladder* is posterior to liver*
transverse colon is superior to
is inferior to small intestine
liver is anterior to
is distal to duodenum
jejunum is medial to
is lateral to left lobe of liver

 

Label all digestive organs of the GI tract. (1 point)

Predefined space to label all the parts of the Organ System

 

Label the elements of the alimentary canal. (0.5 points)

Predefined space to Label the elements of the alimentary canal

 

 

Label the different aspects of the mouth. (0.5 points)

Predefined space to Label the different aspects of the mouth

 

 

Label the major salivary glands and ducts. (0.5 points)

Predefined space o Label the major salivary glands and ducts of human mouth

 

 

Label the aspects of the stomach accordingly. (0.5 points)

Predefined space to Label the aspects of the stomach accordingly

 

Label the accessory organs, structures, and ducts of the digestive system. (0.5 points)

 

Predefined space to Label the accessory organs, structures, and ducts of the digestive system

 

 

Label the structures and features of the large intestine. (0.5 points)

Predefined space to Label the structures and features of the large intestine

 

26

Lab Activities

A list of words is provided below that you are expected to identify, learn, and label on the models provided. Note that not all models will have some of the organs/structures, so be sure to find them on an alternate model. You must use all the words provided. Using the colored tape provided, write the number that corresponds to the organ/structure and place them on your model. When complete, notify your TA so they may check your work.

For each additional station, directions will be provided for the activity.

 

Station One: Mouth

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: For the following structures, be able to differentiate between left and right halves when applicable.

Mouth

#1 labial frenulum

#3 hard palate

#5 uvula

#2 fauces

#4 soft palate

Tongue

#6 tongue

#9 fungiform papillae

#11 circumvallate papillae

#13 taste pore

#7 lingual frenulum

#10 filiform papillae

#12 taste bud

#14 base

#8 apex

Teeth

#15 incisor

#18 molar

#21 root

#24 pulp cavity

#27 cementum

#16 canine

#19 crown

#22 enamel

#25 pulp

#28 periodontal ligament

#17 premolar

#20 neck

#23 dentin

#26 apical foramen

#29 gingiva

Salivary Glands

#30 submandibular

#31 parotid

#32 sublingual

 

Station Two: Esophagus and Stomach

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Esophagus

#1 upper esophageal sphincter

#2 lower esophageal sphincter

Stomach

#3 gastric pits

#6 cardia

#9 pylorus

#12 circular muscle layer

#4 gastric glands

#7 gastric body

#10 pyloric sphincter

#13 oblique muscle layer

#5 fundus

#8 rugae

#11 longitudinal muscle layer

 

 

 

Station Three: Liver, Gallbladder and Pancreas

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: For the following structures, be able to differentiate between left and right halves when applicable.

Liver

#1 right lobe of liver

#3 right hepatic duct

#5 common hepatic duct

#7 hepatic canaliculi

#2 left lobe of liver

#4 left hepatic duct

#6 hepatic lobule

#8 falciform ligament

Gallbladder

#9 fundus of gallbladder

#11 neck of gallbladder

#13 common bile duct

#10 body of gallbladder

#12 cystic duct

Pancreas

#14 acinar cells

#16 islets of Langerahans

#18 pancreatic head

#20 uncinate process

#22 pancreatic duct

#15 endocrine cells

#17 pancreatic tail

#19 pancreatic body

#21 accessory duct

 

Station Four: Histology

Sketch the slides available for today’s lab and specify the magnitude at which you are observing/ sketching. Be sure to identify and label your sketch with the corresponding structures listed beneath each slide.

 

Sketch the structure of Vermiform appendix in the provided space

Vermiform appendix

 

Station Five: Small and Large Intestines

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: For the following structures, be able to differentiate between left and right halves when applicable.

Small Intestine

#1 microvilli

#4 submucosa

#8 enterocytes

#11 ampulla of Vater

#14 ileum

#2 vili

#6 muscularis

#9 plicae circulares

#12 sphincter of Oddi

#15 ileocecal valve

#3 mucosa

#7 serosa

#10 duodenum

#13 jejunum

Large Intestine

#16 crypts of Lieberkühn

#20 serosa

#24 right colic flexure

#28 sigmoid colon

#32 rectum

#17 mucosa

#21 cecum

#25 transverse colon

#29 teniae coli

#33 anal canal

#18 submucosa

#22 vermiform appendix

#26 left colic flexure

#30 haustra

#34 anal sphincter

#19 muscularis

#23 ascending colon

#27 descending colon

#31 epiploic appendices

#35 anus

Miscellaneous

#36 peritoneum

#38 greater omentum

#40 mesoappendix

#37 mesentery of transverse colon

#39 lesser omentum

 

Station Six: Flow of Gastrointestinal Tract

As a group, determine the route boluses take through the various organs of the digestive tract. Be sure to identify the location of each structure on the vocabulary list of this lab section.

27

Post-Lab 8 Questions

(3 points)

Last Name: _______________________ First Name: _______________________

 

  1. Describe the pathway food takes upon ingesting it, making sure to include all accessory structures. (0.5 point)

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain the differences between the layers of the gastrointestinal tract. (0.5 points)

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Match the terms with their corresponding descriptions. (0.5 points)

    Name of Structure Description No. of Structure
    1. Ileum the largest salivary glands that produce approximately 25% of the saliva produced daily
    2. Gallbladder passageway for liquids, foods, AND air
    3. Fauces the modified muscularis of the large intestine
    4. Parotid glands structures on the tongue that provide friction, allowing the tongue to move food in the oral cavity during mastication efficiently
    5. Filiform papillae the terminal portion of the small intestine
    6. Pulp cavity where bile made in the liver joins the bile stored in the gallbladder
    7. Pharynx the opening between the oral cavity and the oropharynx
    8. Rugae inner part of the tooth containing nerves and blood vessels
    9. Common bile duct storage area for bile
    10. Teniae coli folds of the inner wall of the stomach

 

  1. List each type of tooth. How do they function during mastication? (0.5)

 

 

 

  1. List the accessory and primary structures of the GI tract. Why would accessory structures not be classified as primary organs/structures of the digestive system? (0.5 point)

 

 

 

  1. A patient with cancerous growths in their salivary glands undergoes surgery to have them removed.  How might this affect the digestive processes? (0.5 points)

IX

Lab 9: Urinary and Reproductive Systems

28

Lab 9: Urinary and Reproductive Systems

Measurable Outcomes

Background

The urinary system is one of excretion, elimination and reabsorption. It is made from four organs, only one of which produces urine (the kidney). Nephrons, the smallest functional unit of the kidneys, are found in numbers of one to two million within the kidney and can filter up to 400 gallons of cycled blood, daily. The kidneys receive more blood than the heart, liver, or even the brain and have vital functions such as the regulation of pH, blood pressure, concentration of blood solutes and concentration of red blood cells. The remaining three organs (ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra) facilitate urine storage and secretion. Of these organs, only the urethra is anatomically distinct between males and females.

The reproductive system is designed to propagate a species and therefore has two primary functions: the production of gametes (n) and sex hormones.  Male gametes are referred to as sperm cells, whereas female gametes are called ova. Reproduction is very metabolically taxing especially for the female. To illustrate, mature ovum can contain as many as 600,000 mitochondria; to reference, liver cells and cardiac muscles cells contain 2,000 and 5,000 mitochondria respectively. The role of the male reproductive system is to produce sperm and transfer them to the female reproductive tract. Although they originate from similar primordial tissues, the female and male reproductive systems differ in gonad type, ducts, accessory glands, and external genitalia. Male gonads are referred to as testes while the female gonads as ovaries; both are the sites of their respective gametogenesis. The hormones produced by the gonads are crucial to the reproductive system and sexual development, including primary and secondary sexual development, tissue regeneration, and production of gametes.

Humans are a sexually dimorphic species, which mean that there are distinguishing secondary sex characteristics. The hormones that influence male primary and secondary sexual development are called androgens. The hormones that influence female primary secondary sexual development are called estrogens. In females, this entails the development of breasts which are specialized sweat glands.  Males also have mammary tissue but their development is arrested early. Similarly, the thyroid cartilage is enlarged and commonly referred to as an Adam’s apple in males but not so in females.

A developing fetus remains anatomically undifferentiated a will either develop characteristically male or female anatomy. At some point of gestation, the fetus will develop both Wolffian and Müllerian ducts, anlagen of the male and female reproductive systems. As a result, there are several elements of the male and female reproductive systems which are homologous.  Such structures share developmental and evolutionary origins but are not necessarily similar in function. The following are the homologous structures of the male and female reproductive system: labia majora – male scrotum; labia minorashaft of penis; clitorisglans penis; paraurethral gland – prostate gland; greater vestibular gland – bulbourethral gland.

Vocabulary for the Urinary and Reproductive systems on page(s) 172 and 168.

29

Pre-lab 9

(5 points)

Last Name: _______________________ First Name: _______________________

 

Instructions:

Fill in the table below with the appropriate terms. For the remaining exercises, label the structures accordingly.

(1 point)

Name of a structure is directional term to Name of the second structure
scrotum* is posterior to penis*
kidneys is superior to
is inferior to urinary bladder
pubic symphysis is anterior to
is distal to prostate gland
uterus is medial to
is lateral to urethra

 

Label the structures and regions of the left kidney. (1 point)

Predefined spaces to Label the structures and regions of the left kidney

 

 

Label the structures of the nephron. (0.5 points)

Predefined spaces to Label the structures of the nephron

 

Label the structures of the bladder. (0.5 points)

Predefined spaces to Label the structures of the bladder

 

 

Label the parts of the male urinary/reproductive systems. (0.5 points)

Predefined spaces to Label the parts of the male urinary/reproductive systems

 

 

Label the parts of the female urinary/reproductive system. (0.5 points)

Predefined spaces to Label the parts of the female urinary/reproductive system

 

Label the structures of the breasts. (0.25 points)

Predefined spaces to Label the structures of the breasts

 

Label the structures of the uterus. (0.25 points)

Predefined spaces to Label the structures of the uterus

 

30

Lab Activities

A list of words is provided below that you are expected to identify, learn, and label on the models provided. Note that not all models will have some of the organs/structures, so be sure to find them on an alternate model. You must use all the words provided. Using the colored tape provided, write the number that corresponds to the organ/structure and place them on your model. When complete, notify your TA so they may check your work.

For each additional station, directions will be provided for the activity.

 

Station One: Urinary

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

#1 renal fascia

#11 renal pelvis

#21 external urethral orifice

#31 proximal convoluted tubule

#2 adipose capsule

#12 renal hilum

#22 cortical nephron

#32 descending loop of Henle

#3 renal capsule

#13 ureter

#23 juxtamedullary nephron

#33 ascending loop of Henle

#4 renal cortex

#14 urinary bladder

#24 juxtaglomerular apparatus

#35 distal convoluted tubule

#5 renal medulla

#15 detrusor muscle

#25 renal corpuscle

#36 collecting duct

#6 renal lobe

#16 rugae

#26 glomerulus

#37 papillary duct

#7 renal pyramid

#17 urinary trigone

#27 podocyte

#38 minor calyx

#8 renal columns

#18 internal urethral sphincter

#28 bowman’s capsule

#39 major calyx

#9 renal papilla

#19 external urethral sphincter

#29 capsular space

#10 renal sinus

#20 urethra

#30 renal tubules

Blood Vessels

#40 renal artery

#43 arcuate arteries

#46 glomerular capillaries

#49 cortical radiate veins

#52 renal vein

#41 segmental arteries

#44 cortical radiate arteries

#47 efferent arterioles

#50 arcuate veins

#42 interlobar arteries

#45 afferent arterioles

#48 peritubular capillaries

#51 interlobar veins

 

Station Two: Reproductive – Male

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

#1 pubic symphysis

#11 head of sperm

#21 seminal vesicles

#31 prepuce of penis

#2 dartos muscle

#12 midpiece of sperm

#22 bulbourethral (Cowper’s) glands

#32 external urethral orifice

#3 cremaster muscle

#13 tail of sperm

#23 ejaculatory ducts

#33 root of penis

#4 scrotum

#14 seminiferous tubules

#24 prostatic urethra

#34 bulb of penis

#5 scrotal septum

#15 straight tubule

#25 intermediate urethra

#35 crus of penis

#6 testis

#16 rete testis

#26 spongy urethra

#36 suspensory ligament of penis

#7 lobules

#17 epididymis

#27 penis

#37 spermatic cord

#8 leydig cells

#18 ductus (vas) deferens

#28 corpus cavernosum

#38 deep muscle of perineum

#9 sertoli cells

#19 ampulla of ductus deferens

#29 corpus spongiosum

#10 sperm

#20 prostate glands

#30 glans penis

 

Station Three: Reproductive – Female

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

#1 pubic symphysis

#10 isthmus of uterine tube

#19 fundus of uterus

#28 vaginal orifice

#37 breast

#2 placenta

#11 broad ligament

#20 body of uterus

#29 mons pubis

#36 areola

#3 ovary

#12 round ligament

#21 isthmus

#30 vulva

#39 nipple

#4 ova

#13 uterosacral ligament

#22 cervix

#31 labia majora

#40 mammary glands

#5 ovarian ligament

#14 uterus

#23 external os

#32 labia minora

#41 lobule

#6 uterine (Fallopian) tube

#15 endometrium

#24 internal os

#33 vestibule

#42 lactiferous ducts

#7 fimbriae of uterine tube

#16 myometrium

#25 vagina

#34 clitoris

#43 lactiferous sinus

#8 infundibulum of uterine tube

#17 perimetrium

#26 fornix

#35 external urethral orifice

#44 mammary ducts

#9 ampulla of uterine tube

#18 uterine cavity

#27 rugae

#36 vestibular glands

#45 mammary alveoli

 

Station Four: Histology

Sketch the slides available for today’s lab and specify the magnitude at which you are observing/ sketching. Be sure to identify and label your sketch with the corresponding structures listed beneath each slide.

Urinary

Sketch the structures of Kidney - Bowman’s capsule (renal corpuscle), Glomerulus in the provided space

Kidney

Bowman’s capsule (renal corpuscle), Glomerulus

 

Male Reproductive

Sketch the structure of Human Sperm - Head, Midpiece, Tail in the provided space

Human Sperm 
Head, Midpiece, Tail

 

Female Reproductive

 

Station Five: Kidney Dissection

*If you are the last table to use this station, be sure to clean off the dissection kits in the lab’s sink.

 

Station Six: Filtrate Path and Blood Flow through Kidney

As a group, determine the route of urine through the various ducts of the kidney, originating at the glomerulus and ending with the urethra. Be sure to identify where along that path each of the structures on the vocabulary list is located.

As a group, determine the course of blood through the vessels of the kidney.

Note: The following three pages are left blank for the purpose of drawing out these two pathways.

 

31

Post-Lab 9 Questions

(2 points)

Last Name: _______________________  First Name: _______________________

 

  1. Match the structure with the corresponding description. (0.5 point)
    Name of Structure Description No. of structure
    1. ureters Area where renal vessels and ureters converge
    2. kidney urination
    3. renal capsule nephrons located deep in the renal medullas
    4. micturition smooth muscle of the bladder
    5. rugae of the mucosa organ of urine production
    6. hilum includes Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus
    7. collecting duct folds in the bladder when empty
    8. detrusor a  structure where nephrons drain urine into
    9. renal capsule collagen membrane around the kidney
    10. juxtamedullary nephrons tubules that conduct urine from the kidney to bladder

 

  1. Write down the path of urine from the point of origin to secretion. (0.5 point)

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Match the structure with the corresponding description. (0.5 point)

    Name of Structure Description No. of structure
    1. Ductus- vas- deferens produce sperm and testosterone
    2. Areola small convoluted tubules and site of spermatogenesis
    3. Testes conduct sperm to the urethra during ejaculation
    4. Mammary gland produces an ovum, estrogen, and progesterone
    5. Fimbriae a gland in mammals that produces milk
    6. Corpus cavernosum and spongiosum ducts that carry milk from the mammary glands to the nipple
    7. Labia major pigmented area around the nipple
    8. Seminiferous tubules the larger outer folds of the vulva surrounding the inner folds; contain adipose tissue and hair
    9. Ovaries erectile tissues that form the bulk of the penis
    10. Lactiferous ducts small fingerlike projections at the end of the fallopian tubes

     

  2. What is unique about the location/position of the kidneys? (0.5 point)

 

 

X

Lab 10: The Muscular and Integumentary systems

Lab 10: The Muscular and Integumentary systems

Measurable Outcomes

  • Name the anatomical structures of integumentary and muscular systems on available models.
  • Distinguish between the types of muscular tissue from histology slides.
  • Determine the layers of the integument from histology slides.
  • Demonstrate an adequate understand of the material in this section.

Background

The body’s first line of defense against pathogens and other microbes is the skin. The skin is multi-layered and it functions to maintain homeostasis, retain water, synthesize vitamin D and regulate body temperature (thermoregulation). It is made of two chief layers: the epidermis, made of closely packed epithelial cells, and the dermis, made of dense, irregular connective tissue which houses blood vessels, hair follicles, sweat glands, and other structures. Beneath the dermis lies the hypodermis, which is composed mainly of loose connective and fatty tissues. One of skin’s accessory structures, nails, are considered to be specialized structures of the epidermis found at the tips of fingers and toes. Other accessory structures, sudoriferous glands, produce sweat which cools the body by evaporation. Skin is the largest continuous organ of the body, encompassing approximately 16 percent of our body weight.

The muscular system is an intricate network of contractile tissue which works antagonistically in order to move the body. The action of walking requires roughly 200 different muscles alone. Besides skeletal muscles, there are also cardiac muscle and smooth muscle. Cardiac muscle is found uniquely in the heart and is responsible for pumping blood through the circulatory system. Smooth muscle is the type of muscle involved in involuntary movements such as peristalsis which propel boluses through the GI tract. Skeletal muscle is also known as striated muscle, as is cardiac muscle. As you approach the muscles in this lab, make note of which muscles may be named after their shape and which ones may be named after their location or their attachments to the skeleton. Individually, all cells, with the exception of sperm, are unable to move on their own. Nevertheless, with bones as there scaffold, muscles are able to produce movent through a complex series of metabolic reactions.

Vocabulary for Muscles and Integumentary systems can be found on page(s) 166-167 and 166.

 

32

Pre-Lab 10

(5 points)

Last Name: _______________________ First Name: _______________________

 

Instructions:

Fill in the table below with the appropriate terms. For the remaining exercises, label the structures accordingly.

(1 point)

Name of a structure is directional term to Name of the second structure
trapezius* is proximal to pectoralis major*
diaphragm is superior to
is inferior to scalenes
rectus abdominis is anterior to
is distal to biceps femoris
pectoralis minor is medial to
is lateral to external oblique

 

Label the major muscles. (0.5 points)

This is the ( ventral /dorsal ) aspect of the body. (circle one)

Label the major areas in the ( ventral /dorsal ) aspect of the body

 

Label the major muscles of the body. (0.5 points)

This is the ( ventral /dorsal ) aspect of the body. (circle one)

Label the major areas in the ( ventral /dorsal ) aspect of the body

 

Label the muscles of the head. (0.25 points)

Predefined spaces to Label the muscles of head in Anterior view

Predefined spaces to Label the head muscles in lateral view

 

Label the muscles of the eye. (0.25 points)

Predefined spaces to Label the muscles of eyes in lateral and anterior view

 

Label the major abdominal muscles. (0.25 points)

Predefined spaces to Label the abdominal muscles in anterior lateral view

 

Label the major muscles of the lower leg. (0.25 points)

Predefined spaces to Label the lower leg muscles in anterior lateral view

 

Label the layers of the epidermis. (0.5 points)

Predefined spaces to Label the layers of epidermis

Label the layers of integument and accessory structures. (0.5 points)

Predefined spaces to Label the layers of integument and accessory structures

 

33

Lab Activities

A list of words is provided below that you are expected to identify, learn, and label on the models provided. Note that not all models will have some of the organs/structures, so be sure to find them on an alternate model. You must use all the words provided. Using the colored tape provided, write the number that corresponds to the organ/structure and place them on your model. When complete, notify your TA so they may check your work.

For each additional station, directions will be provided for the activity.

 

Station One: Muscles of the Upper Body

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: For the following structures, be able to differentiate between left and right halves when applicable.

Muscles of the Head and Neck

#1 epicranial aponeurosis

#7 nasalis

#13 zygomaticus minor

#19 sternocleidomastoid

#2 front belly of occipitofrontalis

#8 orbicularis oculi

#14 zygomaticus major

#20 platysma

#3 occipital belly of occipitofrontalis

#9 levator labii superioris

#15 buccinator

#21 sternohyoid

#4 temporalis

#10 levator anguli oris

#16 risorius

#22 scalenes

#5 auricularis superior

#11 depressor anguli oris

#17 orbicularis oris

#6 procerus

#12 depressor labii inferioris

#18 mentalis

Muscles of the Eye

#23 levator palpebrae superioris

#25 medial rectus

#27 inferior recuts

#29 superior oblique

#24 lateral recuts

#26 superior rectus

#28 inferior oblique

#30 trochlea

Muscles of the Arms

#31 deltoid

#33 clavicular part of deltoid

#35 coracobrachialis

#37 biceps brachii

#39 brachioradialis

#32 acromial part of deltoid

#34 spinal part of deltoid

#36 triceps brachii

#38 brachialis

#40 extensor digitorum

 

Station Two: Muscles of the Back and Abdomen

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: For the following structures, be able to differentiate between left and right halves when applicable.

#1 trapezius

#7 teres major

#13 pectoralis minor

#19 internal intercostals

#2 levator scapulae

#8 teres minor

#14 serratus anterior

#20 external intercostals

#3 splenius capitis

#9 rhomboid major

#15 recuts abdominis

#21 diaphragm

#4 supraspinatus

#10 rhomboid minor

#16 external oblique

#5 infraspinatus

#11 latissimus dorsi

#17 internal oblique

#6 subscapularis

#12 pectoralis major

#18 transversus abdominis

 

Station Three: Muscles of the Lower Body

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: For the following structures, be able to differentiate between left and right halves when applicable.

#1 gluteus maximus

#7 vastus lateralis

#13 gracilis

#19 extensor digitorum longus

#2 gluteus medius

#8 vastus intermedius

#14 adductor longus

#20 fibularis longus

#3 gluteus minimus

#9 hamstrings

#15 pectineus

#21 tibialis anterior

#4 quadriceps

#10 biceps femoris

#16 sartorius

#22 flexor digitorum longus

#5 rectus femoris

#11 semitendionosus

#17 gastrocnemius

#23 tibialis posterior

#6 vastus medialis

#12 semimembranosus

#18 soleus

Station Four: Histology – Muscle

Sketch the slides available for today’s lab and specify the magnitude at which you are observing/ sketching. Be sure to identify and label your sketch with the corresponding structures listed beneath each slide.

 

 

Station Five: Histology – Integumentary

Sketch the slides available for today’s lab and specify the magnitude at which you are observing/ sketching. Be sure to identify and label your sketch with the corresponding structures listed beneath each slide.

Predefined space to sketch the Squamous epithelium

Squamous epithelium

 

Station Six: Integumentary

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Skin

#1 epidermis

#5 stratum spinosum

#9 papillary layer

#13 hypodermis superficial fascia

#2 stratum corneum

#6 stratum basale

#10 reticular layer

#14 lamellated corpuscles

#3 stratum lucidum

#7 epidermal ridges

#11 dermal papillae

#15 thin (hairy) skin

#4 stratum granulosum

#8 dermis

#12 subcutaneous layer (Hypodermis)

#16 thick (hairless) skin

#17 squamous epithelium

Hair

#18 pili

#20 hair root

#22 bulb

#19 hair shaft

#21 hair follicle

#23 arrector pili muscles

Glands

#24 sebaceous

#26 eccrine sweat

#28 ceruminous

#25 sudoriferous

#27 aprocrine

Nail

#29 nail body (nail plate)

#31 lunula

#33 nail bed

#30 free edge

#32 eponychium (cuticle)

34

Post-Lab 10 Questions

(2 points)

Last Name: ­­_______________________  First Name: _________________________

 

  1. What muscles,  in the dermis are responsible for erecting hair follicles? (0.5 points)

 

 

 

  1. While examining a patient’s eye, a doctor instructs them to move their right eye upward, to the left. Which muscles of the eye were utilized to perform this task? (0.5 points)

 

 

 

  1. What muscle of the cervical region has two origins? (0.5 points)

 

 

 

  1. What is the primary muscle used for normal breathing? Which additional muscles are utilized to increase inspiration and expiration during strenuous exercise? (0.5 points)

XI

Vocabulary

35

Vocabulary

Anatomical Language

Body Planes Anatomical regions
Frontal (Coronal) Cephalic
Transverse Ocular
Sagittal Auricular (Otic)
Buccal
Directional terms Nasal
Anterior (Ventral) Oral
Posterior (Dorsal) Axillary
Proximal Cubital
Distal Antecubital
Superior Carpal (Carpus)
Inferior Palmar
Lateral Thoracic
Medial Abdominal Umbilical
Deep Lumbar
Superficial Inguinal
Parietal Pubic
Visceral Gluteal
Patellar
Abdominal regions Popliteal
Right hypochondriac Crural
Epigastric Sural
Left hypochondriac Tarsal (Tarsus)
Right lumbar Pedal
Umbilical Planter
Left lumbar
Right iliac
Hypogastric (Pelvic)
Left iliac

TISSUEs

Basic tissue types Connective tissues
Epithelial Connective tissue cells:
Connective Fibroblasts
Muscle Macrophages
Nervous Plasma cells
Mast cells
Epithelial Tissues Adipocytes
Classification of Epithelial tissue:
*Based on arrangement of layers* Connective tissue fibers:
Simple Collagen fibers
Pseudostratified Elastic fibers
Stratified Reticular fibers
*Based on cell shapes* Extracellular matrix:
Squamous
Cuboidal
Columnar
*Based on function*  
Covering and lining
Glandular
            Endocrine glands
            Exocrine glands
Absorptive
Transitional epithelium

Bones and Bone Markings

Classification of the bones Axial skeleton skull
Long bone Frontal bone
Short bone Parietal bone
Flat bone Temporal bone
Irregular bone
Sesamoid bone
Bone histology and formation Occipital bone
Intramembranous ossification
Endochondral ossification Foramen Magnum
Osteoprogenitor cells Ethmoid bone
Osteoblasts
Osteocytes
Osteoclasts
Spongy Bone Sphenoid bone
            Trabeculae Sella turcica
Compact bone Zygomatic bone
            Osteon Mandible
            Lamellae Maxilla
            Lacunae Palatine bone
Nasal bone
Parts of the bone Vomer
Epiphysis Lacrimal bone
Metaphysis Hyoid bone
Epiphyseal Line/ Plate
Articular cartilage
Periosteum
Endosteum
Medullary cavity (marrow cavity)
Red bone marrow
Yellow bone marrow

 

Special features of the skull  
Zygomatic arch Thoracic Cage
            Zygomatic process of temporal bone Sternum
            Temporal process of zygomatic bone Ribs
Sutures
            Coronal sutures Clavicle
            Sagittal sutures
Scapula
Vertebral column Acromion
*Parts of the typical vertebra* Glenoid cavity
Body of the vertebrae Coracoid process
Vertebral foramen Supraspinous fossa
Lamina Infraspinous fossa
Spinous process Humerus
Transverse process Head
Trochlea
Regions of the vertebral column Capitulum
Cervical region (recognize atlas and axis vertebral) Medial epicondyle
Transverse foramen (in cervical vertebrae only) Lateral epicondyle
Atlas (C1) Coronoid fossa
Axis (C2) Olecranon fossa
Dens of axis
Thoracic region
Lumbar region
Sacrum
Coccyx
Intervertebral foramen
Intervertebral disc

 

Ulna Femur
Olecranon (Olecranon process) Head of femur
Coronoid process Neck of femur
Trochlear notch Greater trochanter
Head Lesser trochanter
Lateral condyle
Radius Medial condyle
Head
Styloid process Patella
   
Carpals Tibia
Metacarpals Medial malleolus
Phalanges
  Fibula
Hip bones Head
Ilium Lateral malleolus
Ischium Tarsals
  Metatarsals
Pubic arch Phalanges
Pubic symphysis  
Acetabulum Blood Supply
Periosteal arteries/veins
Nutrient artery/veins

SPINAL CORD AND  PERIPHERAL NERVES

Coverings of the spinal cord External anatomy of the spinal cord
Vertebral column Anterior (ventral) median fissure
Spinal meninges Posterior (dorsal) median sulcus
            Dura mater
            Arachnoid mater Cross section of the spinal cord
                        Subarachnoid space Grey matter
Pia mater Posterior (dorsal) gray horn
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Anterior (ventral) gray horn
Epidural space Lateral gray horn
White matter
Spinal cord Posterior (dorsal) white columns
Spinal cord segments Lateral white columns
            Cervical segments Anterior (ventral) white columns
            Thoracic segment Central canal
            Lumbar segment:
            Sacral segment
Cervical enlargement
Lumbar enlargement
Conus medullaris
Filum terminale
Cauda equina

 

Plexuses and peripheral nerves Spinal nerves
Cervical plexus Anterior (ventral) root
            C1-C5 Posterior (dorsal) root
            Phrenic nerve Posterior (dorsal) root ganglion
Brachial Plexus Spinal nerve
            C5-C8, T1 Rami communicantes
            Median nerve
            Radial nerve Number of spinal nerves
            Ulnar nerve Cervical nerves (8)
Lumbar plexus Thoracic nerves (12)
            L1-L4 Lumbar nerves (5)
Sacral plexus Sacral nerves (5)
            L4-L5, S1-S4 Coccygeal nerves (1)
            Sciatic nerve
            Tibial nerve
            Common fibular nerve
Dermatomes

Brain and Cranial Nerves

Nervous system divisions Brain Anatomy
Central nervous system Cerebrum
Peripheral nervous system             Frontal lobe
Somatic nervous system             Temporal lobe
Autonomic nervous system             Parietal lobe
Sympathetic             Occipital lobe
Parasympathetic Insula
Corpus callosum
Sensory = afferent Basal Nuclei
Motor = efferent
Limbic System
Grey matter             Amygdala
White matter             Hippocampus
Gyrus pl. gyri             Cingulate gyrus
Central sulcus
Cerebellum
Meninges Cerebellar hemispheres
Dura mater Vermis
Folia
Arbor vitae
Falx cerebri
Diencephalon
Hypothalamus
Arachnoid mater Thalamus
Pia mater Epithalamus
Pineal gland
Ventricles             Pituitary gland
Lateral ventricles (2) Infundibulum
Interventricular foramen Medial eminence
Third ventricle Brain stem
Cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of midbrain) Medulla oblongata
Fourth ventricle Pons
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Midbrain
Choroid plexuses              Cerebral peduncles
            Tectum
             Corpora quadrigemina
             Superior and inferior colliculi
             Reticular formation

 

Cerebral Cortex Organization
Primary sensory cortex – postcentral gyrus
Primary motor cortex – precentral gyrus
Primary visual cortex – occipital lobe
Primary auditory cortex – temporal lobe
Broca’s speech area – for making speech
Wernicke’s area – for understanding speech
Cranial Nerves and their function
I.               Olfactory – sensory
II.              Optic- sensory
III.            Occulomotor- motor + parasympathetic
IV.            Trochlear- motor
V.             Trigeminal – motor + sensory, mostly sensory
VI.            Abducens- motor
VII.          Facial – motor + sensory + parasympathetic, mostly motor
VIII.         Vestibulocochlear (acoustic)- sensory
IX.            Glossopharyngeal- motor + sensory + parasympathetic
X.              Vagus- motor + sensory + parasympathetic, mostly parasympathetic
XI.            Spinal accessory – motor
XII.           Hypoglossal- motor

Somatic Nervous System

Sensation Somatic motor pathways (to voluntary muscles)
Perception 2-neuron pathway
Sensory modality Sensory tracts
Medial-lateral rule Posterior (dorsal) columns (fine touch and vibration)
First synapse in the medulla oblongata
Somatic Sensory Pathways Crosses to the other side in the medulla
First order neurons Gracile fasciculus
Second order neurons Cuneate fasciculus
Third order neurons Spinothalamic tracts
First synapse in the spinal cord at the level of entry
Dorsal root ganglion Crosses to the other side at the level of entry
Posterior gray horns Lateral spinothalamic tract (pain and temperature)
Thalamus Anterior spinothalamic tract (crude touch)
Primary somatosensory area Spinocerebellar tracts (unconscious)
Sensory homunculus Posterior spinocerebellar tract
Anterior spinocerebellar tract
Conscious motor tracts
Corticospinal tract (pyramidal tract)
Lateral corticospinal tract
Anterior corticospinal tract
Corticobulbar tracts
Upper motor neurons
            Pyramidal cells in precentral gyrus (primary motor cortex)
            Pyramids of medulla
Decussation of pyramids (most fibers cross to the other side)
1st synapse in spinal cord at the level of exit
Lower motor neurons
Motor homunculus
Internal capsule
Subconscious motor tracts
Rubrospinal tract
Tectospinal tract
Vestibulospinal tract
Reticulospinal tract

Autonomic Nervous System Word List

Preganglionic neuron Sympathetic division
Autonomic ganglion Lateral horns T1 to L2
Postganglionic neuron Sympathetic ganglia
Preganglionic vs postganglionic fibers Sympathetic trunk
Dual innervation Prevertebral ganglia
Adrenal Medulla
Autonomic Plexuses  
Cardiac plexus Parasympathetic (cranio-sacral) division
Celiac (solar) plexus Vagus nerve
Superior mesenteric plexus Sacral parasympathetic neurons
Inferior mesenteric plexus Parasympathetic ganglia in the walls of the target organs
Renal plexus
Hypogastric plexus

Special Senses

Eyeball Muscles of the eye
Anterior cavity (has 2 chambers) Superior rectus
            Aqueous humor Inferior rectus
Posterior cavity (not chamber! See powerpoint.) Lateral rectus
            Vitreous humor Medial rectus
Lens Superior oblique
Fibrous Tunic Inferior oblique
Sclera Palpabrae
Cornea Conjunctiva
Vascular Tunic Lacrimal glands
Iris Ear
Pupil External (outer) ear
Ciliary bodies Middle ear
Choroid Inner ear
Neural Tunic External ear
Retina Auricle
Macula lutea External auditory (acoustic) meatus (canal)
Fovea centralis Tympanic membrane
Optic disc (blind spot) Ceruminous glands
Layers of the retina from outside of the eyeball to the inside) Middle Ear
Photoreceptors: Rods and Cones Auditory ossicles
Bipolar cells Stapes
Ganglion cells Incus
Axons form optic nerve (CN II) Malleus
Horizontal cells Oval window
Amacrine cells Auditory (Eustachian) tube
Inner ear- bony labyrinth Olfaction
Semicircular canals Olfactory epithelium
Vestibule Olfactory receptor cells
Cochlea Olfactory nerve CN I
Perilymph Cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone
Olfactory foramina
Inner ear- membranous labyrinth Olfactory bulb
Semicircular canals Olfactory tract
Ampulla
Cupula Taste
Urticle 5 primary tastes: sour, sweet, bitter, salt, umami
Saccule Taste buds
Cochlea Lingual papillae on the tongue, soft palate, pharynx, epiglottis
Endolymph Filiform papillae
Maculae Fungiform papillae
Otoliths Circumvallate papillae
Scala media Innervated by
Scala tympani CN VII
Organ of Corti CN IX
CN X

Respiratory System Word List

Upper respiratory system Trachea and bronchial tree
Nose Tracheal cartilages
Root Carina
Bridge Primary (main) bronchi (L/R)
Apex Secondary (lobar) bronchi
naris (narises) Tertiary (segmental) bronchi
Nasal Cavity Bronchioles
Nasal Conchae (superior, middle, inferior) Terminal bronchioles
Nasal meatuses (superior, middle, inferior) Respiratory bronchioles
Pharynx Alveolar ducts
Nasopharynx Alveolar sacs
Oropharynx Alveoli
Laryngopharynx Type I Alveolar Cells
Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid) Type II Alveolar Cells
Surfactant
Lower respiratory system  
Larynx Lung external features
Epiglottis Superior Lobe
Vocal cords Inferior Lobe
Glottis Middle Lobe
Larynx cartilages Cardiac Notch
Thyroid cartilage Horizontal fissure
Cricoid cartilage Oblique fissure
Cuneiform cartilage Apex of lung
Corniculate cartilage Base of lung
Arytenoid cartilage Hilum
Coverings of lungs Muscles of Exhalation
Parietal pleura Internal Intercostal Muscles
Visceral pleura External oblique
Pleural cavity Internal oblique
Transverse abdominis
Primary muscles of inhalation Rectus abdominis
Diaphragm  
External intercostal muscles Blood Supply to respiratory system
Accessory Muscles of Inhalation **Note the difference between pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation **
Scalenes Systemic circulation
Sternocleidomastoid Bronchial arteries
Coverings of lungs Bronchial veins
Parietal pleura Pulmonary circulation
Visceral pleura Pulmonary trunk
Pleural cavity Pulmonary artery
Pulmonary veins

Blood Components

Blood components Thrombocytes (Platelets)
Blood plasma Thrombopoiesis
Plasma proteins Myeloid stem cell
            Albumins Megakaryocyte
            Globulins
            Fibrinogen Leukocytes (White blood cells)
Serum Myeloid stem cell line
Formed elements    Granular leukocytes
            Erythrocytes      Neutrophils
Leukocytes      Eosinophils
Platelets      Basophils
     Agranular leukocytes
Blood Cell Formation Monocytes
Hemopoiesis (Hematopoiesis) Macrophages
Red bone marrow
Pluripotent stem cells Lymphoid stem cell line
     Lymphocytes
Erythrocytes (Red blood cells)          T cells
Erythropoiesis          B cells
Reticulocytes          Natural killer cells
Hemoglobin
ABO blood group system
Rh blood group system

Blood Vessels

Blood circuits Types of blood vessels
Pulmonary circulation **Know difference between arteries and veins**
Systemic circulation Arteries
Coronary circulation Elastic arteries (conducting arteries)
Hepatic portal circulation Muscular arteries (distributing arteries)
Anastomoses (collateral arteries) Arterioles (resistance vessels)
Arterio-arterial (2 or more arteries supplying blood to the same capillary bed) Capillaries
Arterial-venous (bypassing capillary beds)       Continuous capillaries
      Fenestrated capillaries
Layers of blood vessel walls       Sinusoid capillaries
Tunica interna (intima) Veins
Tunica media       Venules
Tunica externa (adventitia)
Vasa vasorum

 

Major blood vessels of pulmonary circulation Blood flow to the brain
Pulmonary trunk Aorta
Pulmonary arteries Right/left common carotid artery
Pulmonary capillaries Right/left internal carotid arteries
Pulmonary veins Vertebral arteries
  Basilar artery
Major arteries of systemic circulation Circle of Willis (cerebral arterial circle)
**Make note of the paired branches vs unpaired arteries and veins** Left/Right middle cerebral arteries
Aorta Left/Right ophthalmic arteries
Ascending aorta
Arch of the Aorta Arteries of the upper limbs
Descending aorta Left/Right subclavian arteries (note the differences in their origins)
Brachiocephalic trunk Left/Right axillary arteries
Common carotid artery Left/Right brachial arteries
Internal carotid artery Left/Right radial arteries
External carotid artery Left/Right ulnar arteries
Carotid sinus
Common iliac artery

 

Arteries of abdominal cavity Veins of the upper limbs
Celiac trunk Left/Right radial vein
Superior mesenteric artery Left/Right ulnar vein
Inferior mesenteric artery Left/Right median cubital vein
Left/Right brachial vein
Arteries of the lower limbs Left/Right axillary vein
Left/Right common iliac arteries Left/Right cephalic vein
Left/Right femoral arteries Left/Right subclavian vein
Left/Right popliteal arteries Left/Right brachiocephalic veins
Left/Right anterior tibial arteries Superior vena cava
Left/Right posterior tibial arteries
Left/Right fibular (peroneal) arteries Hepatic portal circulation
  Hepatic artery
Veins Portal vein
Superior vena cava Hepatic veins
Inferior vena cava Veins of the lower limbs
Left/Right fibular (peroneal) veins
Veins of the neck and head Left/Right posterior tibial veins
Left/Right internal jugular Left/Right anterior tibial veins
Left/Right external jugular Left/Right popliteal veins
Left/Right subclavian vein Left/Right great saphenous veins
Left/Right brachiocephalic veins Left/Right femoral veins
Left/Right common iliac veins
Inferior vena cava

heart

Cardiac muscle histology Layers of the heart wall
Cardiac myocytes Pericardium
Striated
Mononucleated
Intercalated discs Visceral layer (a.k.a. epicardium)
Epicardium (same as visceral layer of pericardium)
External features of the heart Myocardium
Base Endocardium
Apex
Auricles Internal heart anatomy
Coronary sulcus Right/Left atria
Anterior interventricular sulcus Pectinate muscles
Posterior interventricular sulcus Interatrial septum
Foramen ovale
Positioning of the heart Right/Left ventricles
Mediastinum Interventricular septum
Behind the sternum Fibrous skeleton
Rotated to the left
*Make sure you know what parts of the heart form anterior, posterior, inferior, right and left surfaces
Heart valves and associated structures Coronary Circulation
Cusps (leaflets) Left coronary artery
Right atrioventricular valve – tricuspid valve Anterior interventricular branch
Left atrioventricular valve – bicuspid (mitral valve) Circumflex branch
Chordae tendineae Right coronary artery
Papillary muscles Posterior interventricular branch
Pulmonary semilunar valve Marginal branch
Aortic semilunar valve
Great cardiac vein
Cardiac conduction system Middle cardiac vein
Sinoatrial (SA) node Small cardiac vein
Atrioventricular (AV) node Anterior cardiac veins
Atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) Coronary sinus
Left and right bundle branches
Purkinje fibers

Lymphatic System

Main Four Elements of the System Lymphatic organs
Lymph Red bone marrow
     Lymphocytes Thymus
Lymphatic vessels Lymph nodes
Lymphatic organs and tissues       Afferent lymphatic vessels
        Efferent lymphatic vessels
Lymphatic vessels and circulation Spleen
Lymphatic capillaries       White pulp
      Lacteals        Red pulp
Lymphatic vessels (lymphatics)
      Lymph trunks Lymphatic tissues
      Intestinal trunk Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)
      Bronchomediastinal trunks Aggregated lymphatic follicles (Peyer’s Patches)
      Subclavian trunks Tonsils
      Jugular trunks      Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid)
     Palatine tonsils
Thoracic duct (left lymphatic duct)       Lingual tonsils
Right Lymphatic duct

Digestive System

Parts of the digestive tract (top-down) Layers of the GI tract (from deep to superficial)
Oral cavity (mouth) Mucosa (digestive epithelium)
Esophagus Submucosa
Stomach Muscularis
Duodenum Serosa/adventitia
Liver *Innervation of the gut *
Pancreas Submucosal plexus (plexus of Meissner)
Gallbladder Myenteric plexus (plexus of Auerbach)
Jejunum
Ileum Peritoneum
Colon Parietal layer
Cecum Visceral layer
Appendix Peritoneal cavity
Ascending colon Greater omentum
Transverse colon Lesser omentum
Descending colon Mesentery
Sigmoid colon Intraperitoneal organs
Rectum Retroperitoneal organs
Anal canal
Anus

 

Parts of digestive tract in detail Teeth (denten)
Mouth Crown
Buccal (oral) cavity Neck
Lips (labia) Root
Uvula Enamel
Hard palate Dentin
Soft palate Pulp cavity
            Palatoglossal arch

Palatopharyngeal arch

Root canal
Tonsils Apical foramen
Salivary Glands Incisors
Parotid glands Canines
Submandibular glands Premolars (Bicuspids)
Sublingual glands Molars (Tricuspids)
Saliva
Tongue Pharynx
Papillae Deglutition (swallowing)
Fungiform papillae Esophagus
Circumvallate (vallate) papillae Lower esophageal sphincter (lower esophageal valve) (LES)
Filiform papillae
Lingual frenulum

 

Stomach Pancreas
Rugae Pancreatic duct
Lesser curvature Hepatopancreatic ampulla (ampulla of Vater)
Greater curvature Sphincter of Oddi
Acini (exocrine cells)
Fundus Pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) (endocrine cells)
Body
Pylorus Liver
Pyloric sphincter Right lobe
  Left lobe
Mucosa of the stomach Quadrate lobe
Gastric glands Caudate lobe
Gastric pits Hepatocytes
Parietal cells
Chief cells
G cells

 

Bile ducts Large intestine
Right and left hepatic duct Teniae coli
Common hepatic duct Haustra
Common bile duct Appendix
Cecum
Portal triad of liver lobules Ileocecal sphincter (Ileocecal valve)
Hepatic artery Colon
Hepatic portal vein Ascending colon
Central vein Transverse colon
Hepatic veins Descending colon
Sigmoid colon
Gallbladder Rectum
Cystic duct Anal canal
Anus
Small intestine  
Circular folds (plicae circulares) Blood supply of GI Tract
Villi Sinusoid capillaries
Lacteals
Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum
Ileocecal sphincter (ileocecal valve)

URINARY

Kidneys Filtrate pathway (Nephron)
Ureters Cortical nephron
Urinary bladder Juxtamedullary nephron
Urethra Renal corpuscle
Kidney  
Fibrous capsule
Perinephric fat Afferent arteriole
Renal fascia Efferent arteriole
Renal cortex Proximal convoluted tubule
Renal medulla Nephron loop (Loop of Henle)
Renal pyramids
            Renal papilla
Renal columns Distal convoluted tubule
Renal sinus Collecting duct
Minor calyx Papillary duct
Major calyx
Renal pelvis
Renal hilum
Renal artery
Renal vein

 

Urinary bladder
Detrusor muscle
Trigone
Internal urethral sphincter
External urethral sphincter
 
Blood flow through kidney
Renal artery
Segmental arteries
Interlobar arteries
Arcuate arteries
Cortical radiate arteries
Afferent arterioles
Glomerular capillaries
Efferent arteriole
Peritubular/vasa recta capillaries
Interlobular veins
Arcuate veins
Interlobar veins
Renal vein
Inferior vena cava

muscular system

Muscle cell (Myofibers) Muscles of the head and neck
Sarcolemma Mouth movement:
Sarcoplasm Orbicularis oris
Sarcoplasmic reticulum Zygomaticus major and minor
Risorius
Connective tissues of the muscle Mentalis
Endomysium Depressor labii inferioris
Perimysium Depressor anguli oris
Epimysium Levator anguli oris
Muscle fascicles Buccinator
Tendons Depressor labii superioris
Aponeuroses
Eye movement:
Organization of fascicles Corrugator supercilii
Parallel muscle fibers Levator palpebrae superioris
Triangular muscle fibers Orbicularis oculi
Pennate muscle fibers
            Unipennate muscle fibers
            Bipennate muscle fibers
            Multipennate muscle fibers
Circular muscle fibers

 

Muscles of the eyes and their action
Superior rectus- moves eyeballs superiorly (elevation) and medially (adduction), and rotates them medially (intorsion)
Superior oblique- moves eyeballs inferiorly (depression) and laterally (abduction), and rotates them medially (intorsion)
Levator palpebrae superioris- elevates upper eyelids (opens eyes)
Inferior oblique- moves eyeballs superiorly (elevation) and laterally (abduction) and rotates them laterally (extorsion)
Inferior rectus- moves eyeballs inferiorly (depression) and medially (adduction), and rotates them laterally (extorsion)
Lateral rectus- moves eyeballs laterally (abduction)
Medial rectus- moves eyeballs medially (adduction)

 

Muscles of respiration Rotator Cuff Muscle (SITS)
External intercostals Supraspinatus*
Diaphragm Infraspinatus*
Scalenes* Teres minor*
Sternocleidomastoid* Subscapularis*
Internal intercostals Teres major*
Rectus abdominis Coracobrachialis
Internal oblique
External oblique Muscles of upper limb
Transverse abdominis Deltoid
Biceps Brachii (long and short head)
Triceps Brachii (medial, lateral, and long head)
Brachialis
Brachioradialis

Joints and Articulations

Joints (Arthroses) Classification of joints based on range of motion
Fibrous joints Synarthrosis
Sutures Amphiarthrosis
Syndesmoses Diarthroses
Gomphosis
Interosseous membranes
Cartilaginous joints Classification based on mechanics of movement
Synchondroses Plane joints
Symphyses Hinge joints
Pubic symphysis Pivot joints
Epiphyseal cartilages
Intervertebral articulations and ligaments
Synovial joints Intervertebral discs
Synovial cavity Nucleus pulposus
Synovial membrane Anulus fibrosus
Synovial fluid Supraspinous ligament
Articular cartilage Interspinous ligament
Articular capsule (joint capsule) Anterior longitudinal ligament
Accessory structures Posterior longitudinal ligament
            Ligaments
            Tendons
            Bursae
Tendon sheaths
            Menisci

Integumentary System

Skin (Cutaneous membrane) Cells of epidermis
Epidermis Keratinocytes
Dermis Melanocytes
Hypodermis- Subcutaneous (subQ) layer Intraepidermal macrophages (Langerhans cells)
Thin (hairy) skin Tactile epithelial cells (Merkel cells)
Thick (hairless) skin
 

Pigmentation of skin

 
Melanin Dermis
            Eumelanin Papillary region
            Pheomelanin Areolar tissue
  Dermal papillae
Layers of epidermis Reticular region
Stratum basale (germinativum) Tension lines (lines of cleavage)
Epidermal ridges
Stratum germinativum
Stratum spinosum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum lucidum
Stratum corneum
Accessory structures of the skin Nails
Hairs Nail body (plate)
Shaft Free edge
Hair follicle Nail root
Hair matrix Lunula
Papilla of the hair Hyponychium
Bulb Nail bed
Hair root plexus Eponychium (cuticle)
Arrector pili muscle Nail matrix
Skin Glands
Sebaceous (oil) glands
Sebum
Sudoriferous (sweat) glands
Eccrine (merocrine) sweat glands
Apocrine sweat glands
Ceruminous glands
Cerumen

Endocrine System

Hypothalamus Thyroid Gland
“short” vs “long” axons Left and right lateral lobes
Supraoptic nucleus Isthmus
Paraventricular nucleus Follicles
Follicular cells – cuboidal epithelium
Pituitary gland (Hypophysis) Thyroglobulin
Sella turcica of sphenoid bone Parafollicular cells
Infundibulum Parathyroid Glands
Medial eminence Chief cells- PTH
Anterior pituitary (Adenohypophysis) Oxyphils
Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis)
Pituicytes Adrenal (Suprarenal) Glands
Herring’s bodies Adrenal cortex
Blood supply  
Hypophyseal portal circulation Zona reticularis- gonadal steroids
Superior hypophyseal artery Adrenal medulla
Fenestrated capillaries Chromaffin cells- epinephrine
Hypophyseal veins
Inferior hypophyseal artery

 

Pancreas Other endocrine organs
Islets of Langerhans (pancreatic islets) Thymus
            Alpha cells- glucagon Skin
            Beta cells- insulin Vitamin D
            Delta cells- somatostatin Kidneys
            F cells- pancreatic peptide (PP) Calcitriol
Acinar cells, acini (exocrine) Testes
  Interstitial cells- testosterone
Pineal Gland  
Pinealocytes- melatonin Ovaries
Calcifications Follicular cells– estrogens

 

1

Image Credits

Images are individually licensed as noted below.

Lab 1

“Planes of body” by OpenStax College is licensed under CC BY 3.0.

Abdominal Quadrant Regions” by OpenStax College is licensed under CC BY 3.0.

Directional Terms” by OpenStax College is licensed under CC BY 3.0.

Regions of Human Body” by OpenStax College is licensed under CC BY 4.0.

1916 Leukocyte Key” by OpenStax College is licensed under CC by 3.0.

Compact bone” by Lord of Konrad is in the public domain. It was accessed via Wikimedia Commons.

1313 Spinal Cord Cross Section” by OpenStax College is licensed under CC BY 4.0.

Renal corpuscle” by Ed Uthman is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0.

Lab 2

705 Lateral View of Skull-01” by OpenStax College is licensed under CC BY 3.0.

707 Superior-Inferior View of Skull Base-01” by OpenStax College is licensed under CC BY 3.1.

Vertebra Superior View” by BodyParts3D/Anatomography is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Right scapula – close-up – anterior view” by Anatomography is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.1 JP.

Right scapula – close-up – posterior view” by Anatomography is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.1 JP.

804 Humerus and Elbow” by OpenStax College is licensed under CC BY 3.0.

805 Ulna and Radius” by OpenStax College is licensed under CC BY 3.0.

810 Femur and Patella” by OpenStax College is licensed under CC BY 3.0.

811 Tibia and fibula” by OpenStax College is licensed under CC BY 3.0.

Lab 3

N/A

Lab 4

1306 Lobes of Cerebral CortexN” by OpenStax College is licensed under CC BY 4.0.

PSM V46 D168 Mesial view of the human brain” is in the public domain. It was accessed via Wikimedia Commons.

Blausen 0896 Ventricles Brain” by BruceBlaus is licensed under a CC BY 3.0 Unported license.

1320 The Cranial Nerves” by OpenStax College is licensed under CC BY 4.0.

Lab 5

1402 The Tongue” by OpenStax College is licensed under CC BY 4.0.

1403 Olfaction” by OpenStax College is licensed under CC BY 4.0. 

1404 The Structures of the Ear” by OpenStax College is licensed under CC BY 4.0. 

1412 Extraocular Muscles” by OpenStax College is licensed under CC BY 3.0.

1413 Structure of the Eye” by OpenStax College is licensed under CC BY 3.0.

Lab 6

N/A

Lab 7

2014ab Coronary Blood Vessels” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 3.0.

2008 Internal Anatomy of the HeartN” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 3.0.

2005 Surface Anatomy of the Heart” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 3.0. 

2120 Major Systemic Artery” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 3.0.

2131 Major Systemic Veins” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 3.0. 

Lab 8

2401 Components of the Digestive System” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 3.0.

2402 Layers of the Gastrointestinal Tract” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 3.0.

2406 Structures of the Mouth” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 3.0.

2408 Salivary Glands” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 3.0. 

2414 Stomach” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 3.0 .

Liver Gallbladder SI” by Andrea Campo-Velez is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0.

Blausen 0604 LargeIntestine2” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 3.0. 

Lab 9

2610 The Kidney” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 3.0.

2611 Blood Flow in the Nephron” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 3.0.

2605 The Bladder” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 3.0.

Figure 28 01 01” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 3.0. 

 “Image  from page 1340  of ‘Cunningham’s Text -book of anatomy’ (1914)” is in the public domain. It was accessed via the Internet Archive Book Images Flikr. 

Image  from ‘Anatomy of the Human  Body’ (1918) ” Is in the public domain. It was accessed via Wikimedia Commons.

Figure 28 02 01” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 3.0. 

Figure 28 02 09” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 3.0. 

Lab 10

1105 Anterior and Posterior View of Muscles” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 4.0.

1106 Front and Side Views of the Muscles of Facial Expressions” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 4.0. 

1107 The Extrinsic Eye Muscles” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 4.0.

1112 Muscles of the Abdomen” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 4.0 .

1123 Muscles of the Leg that Move the Foot and Toes” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 4.0.

502 Layers of epidermis” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 3.0. 

501 Structure of the skin” by OpenStax is licensed under CC BY 3.0.