Chapter 1:  Introduction

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Litman, T. (2021b). Towards more comprehensive and multi-modal transport evaluation. 27.

Lockwood, I. (2017). Making the case for transportation language reform: Removing bias. ITE Journal.

Rodrigue, J.-P. (2020). The geography of transport systems.

Schneider, R. J. (2013). Theory of routine mode choice decisions: An operational framework to increase sustainable transportation. Transport Policy, 25, 128–137.

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Williams, K., & Seggerman, K. (2014). Multimodal transportation best practices and model element.

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Chapter 2:  Contemporary Issues in Transportation

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Armour, P., Carman, K. G., Mullen, K. J., & Nataraj, S. (2020). Telecommuting and work in the COVID-19 pandemic: Are workers returning to the workplace or staying in their home offices? RAND Corporation.

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Cruz, C. O., & Sarmento, J. M. (2020). “Mobility as a service” platforms: A critical path towards increasing the sustainability of transportation systems. Sustainability, 12(16), 6368.

Dannenberg, A. L., & Sener, I. N. (2015). Why public health and transportation. 7.

Dijkstra. A. (2021). European road safety observatory: Road safety thematic report – pedestrians.

ENO Center for Transportation. (2019). A fast-changing mobility landscape: An analysis of public transit agency survey results.

Ezike, R., Martin, J., Catalano, K., & Cohn, J. (2019). Where are self-driving cars taking us? Pivotal choices that will shape DC’s transportation future (p. 38).

FHWA. (2011). Creating livable communities: How the transportation decision making process can support more livable community outcomes (Guidebook FHWA-HEP-12-003).

FHWA. (2013). A resident’s guide for creating safer a communities for walking and biking.

FHWA. (2018). Guide for scalable risk assessment methods for pedestrians and bicyclists (FHWA-SA-18-032). U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration.

FHWA. (2021). Safe transportation for every pedestrian (STEP).

FHWA, & FTA. (n.d.). Livability in transportation guidebook: Planning approaches that promote livability (FHWA-HEP-10-028). Retrieved September 13, 2021, from

Fleisher, A., Cohen, S., Amin, R., Deutsch-Gross, Z., & Kiner, L. (2020). The Future of transportation: Harnessing private mobility services to support the public good (A. Arieff, Ed.). SPUR (San Francisco Bay Area Planning and Urban Research Association).

Hajrasoulih, A., del Rio, V., Francis, J., & Edmondson, J. (2018). Urban form and mental wellbeing: Scoping a theoretical framework for action. Centre for Urban Design and Mental Health.—urban-form-and-mental-wellbeing.html

IMB. (2016). What is the internet of things, and how does it work? IBM Business Operations Blog.

Injury Surveillance Workgroup 8. (2017). Consensus recommendations for pedestrian injury surveillance. Safe States Alliance.

Irish, A. (2017). Assessing local government capacity for implementing sustainable transportation: The role of political culture. International Journal of Public Administration, 40(5), 375–384.

Jittrapirom, P., Caiati, V., Feneri, A. M., Ebrahimigharehbaghi, S., Alonso Gonzalez, M., & Narayan, J. (2017). Mobility as a service: A critical review of definitions, assessments of schemes, and key challenges. Urban Planning, 2.

Kile, J. (2021). A statement to the congress on the long-term solvency of the highway trust fund.

Kim, S. D. (2012). Characterizing unknown unknowns.

Kirk, R., & Mallett, W. (2020). Funding and financing highways and public transportation (No. R45350; p. 29). Congressional Research Service.

Kumar, N. M., & Dash, A. (2017). Internet of Things: An Opportunity for Transportation and Logistics. Internet of Things, 10.

Litman, T. (2021). Evaluating transportation equity.

Luo, X.-G., Zhang, H.-B., Zhang, Z.-L., Yu, Y., & Li, K. (2019). A new framework of intelligent public transportation system based on the internet of things. IEEE Access, 7, 55290–55304.

MaaS Alliance. (n.d.). What is MaaS? Retrieved September 19, 2021, from

Martinson, R. (2018). Equity and mobility. ITE Canada, 40(2).

McCoy, K., Andrew, J., Glynn, R., & Lyons, W. (2018). Integrating shared mobility into multimodal transportation planning: Improving regional performance to meet public goals (FHWA-HEP-18-033; p. 56). FHWA.

McCoy, K., Glynn, R., Lyons, W., & Andrew, J. (2019). Integrating shared mobility into multimodal transportation planning: Metropolitan area case studies (FHWA-HEP-18-033; p. 42). FHWA.

Mobilize Green. (n.d.). Environmental equity vs. environmental justice: What’s the difference? MobilizeGreen. Retrieved September 2, 2021, from

Mokhtarian, P. L. (1991). Defining telecommuting. Transportation Research Record, 1305.

Morency, P., Gauvin, L., Plante, C., Fournier, M., & Morency, C. (2012). Neighborhood social inequalities in road traffic injuries: The influence of traffic volume and road design. American Journal of Public Health, 102(6), 1112–1119.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). Advancing automated and connected vehicles: Policy and planning strategies for state and local transportation agencies (J. Zmud, G. Goodin, M. Moran, N. Kalra, & E. Thorn, Eds.). The National Academies Press.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2019a). Critical issues in transportation 2019. The National Academies Press.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2019b). Renewing the national commitment to the interstate highway system: A foundation for the future (Special Report 329; p. 614). The National Academies Press.

NHTSA. (n.d.). Automated vehicles for safety. Retrieved September 15, 2021, from

NHTSA. (2020). 2018 traffic safety facts: Bicyclists and other cyclists.

NHTSA. (2021). 2019 traffic safety facts: Pedestrians.

Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J. (2020). Urban and transport planning pathways to carbon neutral, liveable and healthy cities; A review of the current evidence. Environment International, 140, 105661.

Parker, K., Menasce Horowitz, J., & Minkin, R. (2020). How coronavirus has changed the way Americans work. Pew Research Center’s Social & Demographic Trends Project.

Pereira, R. H. M., & Karner, A. (2021). Transportation equity. In R. Vickerman (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Transportation (pp. 271–277). Elsevier.

PolicyLink. (2016). Transportation for all: Good for families, communities, and the economy.

Project for Public Spaces. (n.d.). Placemaking: What if we built our cities around places? Retrieved September 13, 2021, from

Rall, J., & Shinkle, D. (n.d.). Transportation choices for vulnerable populations [PowerPoint Presentation]. National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved September 3, 2021, from

Rodrigue, J.-P. (2020). The geography of transport systems.

Safe Routes Partnership. (n.d.). Equity in safe routes to school. Retrieved September 3, 2021, from

Sawhill, I. V., & Guyot, K. (2020). Telecommuting will likely continue long after the pandemic. Brookings.

Shaheen, S., & Cohen, A. (2021). Shared micromobility policy and practices in the united states: A modern guide to the urban sharing economy.

Shaheen, S., Cohen, A., Broader, J., Davis, R., Brown, L., Neelakantan, R., & Gopalakrishna, D. (2020). Mobility on demand planning and implementation: Current practices, innovations, and emerging mobility futures (FHWA-JPO-20-792). ICF, UC Berkeley.

Shaheen, S., Cohen, A., & Zohdy, I. (2016). Shared mobility current practices and guiding principles (FHWA-HOP-16-022; p. 120).

Smart Growth America. (2021). Dangerous by design 2021.

Sorenson, P. (2013). From fuel taxes to mileage fees. ACCESS, 43, 41.

Steuteville, R. (2014). Four types of placemaking. CNU.

The Pew Charitable Trusts. (2014). Intergovernmental challenges in surface transportation funding. 28.

Toth, G. (2019). Placemaking: Project for public spaces, congress for the new urbanism. ITE Journal, 89(10).

U.K. Department for Transport. (2022a). Reported road casualties Great Britain: Pedestrian factsheet 2021.,distance%20walked)%20grew%20by%2010%25

U.K. Department for Transport. (2022b). Reported road casualties Great Britain: Pedal cycle factsheet 2021.,distance%20walked)%20grew%20by%2010%25

U.S. Department of Transportation. (1999). Literature review on vehicle travel speeds and pedestrian injuries (DOT HS 809 021).

U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2021). Use of energy for transportation.

U.S. EPA. (n.d.). Sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Retrieved September 12, 2021, from

Valentijn, M. (2020). Equality-equity-justice-lores [Photo].

Williams, K., Boyd, T., Linkous, E., Beem, C., Tremblay, N., Keita, Y., & Polzin, S. (2019). Assessment of planning risks and alternative futures for the Florida transportation plan update (FDOT BDV25-977-57; p. 169). FDOT.

Williams, K., Kramer, J., Keita, Y., Enomah, L. D., & Boyd, T. (2019). Integrating equity into MPO project prioritization (CTEDD No. 018-03; p. 181). CTEDD.

Zhong, S., Li, X., Jiang, Y., Cheng, R., & Wang, Z. (2020). Identifying the combined effect of shared autonomous vehicles and congestion pricing on regional job accessibility. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 13(1), 273–297.

Zietsman, J., & Khreis, H. (2019). It’s complicated: Transportation’s relationship with public health. Texas Transportation Researcher, 55(2).

Zmud, J., Tooley, M., Baker, T., & Wagner, J. (2015). Paths of automated and connected vehicle deployment: Strategic roadmap for state and local transportation agencies (TTI/SRP/15/161504-1; Preparing Texas’ Road Map for Automated and Connected Vehicle Deployment, p. 101). Texas A&M Transportation Institute.


An, Z., Heinen, E., & Watling, D. (2021). When you are born matters: An age-period-cohort analysis of multimodality. Travel Behaviour and Society, 22, 129–145.

Arian, A., & Chiu, Y.-C. (2017). Evaluating carpooling opportunities among multimodal options using a supernetwork approach (No. 17–06811). Article 17–06811. Transportation Research Board 96th Annual Meeting.

Bianco, M. J. (2000). Effective transportation demand management: Combining parking pricing, transit incentives, and transportation management in a commercial district of Portland, Oregon. Transportation Research Record, 1711(1), 46–54.

Bigazzi, A. Y., & Figliozzi, M. A. (2012). Congestion and emissions mitigation: A comparison of capacity, demand, and vehicle based strategies. Transportation Research Part D: Transport Environment, 17(7), 538–547.

Burns, E. (1992). Arizona’s metropolitan travel reduction programs [Working Paper, No. 81]. University of California Transportation Center.

Castellanos, S. (2016). Delivering modal-shift incentives by using gamification and smartphones: A field study example in Bogota, Colombia. Case Studies on Transport Policy, 4(4), 269–278.

Chatman, D. G., & Manville, M. (2014). Theory versus implementation in congestion-priced parking: An evaluation of SFpark, 2011–2012. Research in Transportation Economics, 44, 52–60.

Davison, L. J., & Knowles, R. D. (2006). Bus quality partnerships, modal shift and traffic decongestion. Journal of Transport Geography, 14(3), 177–194.

Di Dio, S., Casto, B. L., Micari, F., Rizzo, G., & Vinci, I. (2015). Mobility, data, and behavior: The trafficO2 case study. In A. Vesco & F. Ferrero (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Social, Economic, and Environmental Sustainability in the Development of Smart Cities (pp. 382–406). IGI Global.

Dill, J. (1998). Mandatory employer-based trip reduction: What happened? Transportation Research Record, 1618(1), 103–110.

Ghimire, R., & Lancelin, C. (2019). The relationship between financial incentives provided by employers and commuters’ decision to use transit: Results from the Atlanta Regional Household Travel Survey. Transport Policy, 74, 103–113.

Giuliano, G., Hwang, K., & Wachs, M. (1993). Employee trip reduction in Southern California: First year results. Transportation Research Part A: Policy & Practice, 27(2), 125–137.

Gössling, S., & Cohen, S. (2014). Why sustainable transport policies will fail: EU climate policy in the light of transport taboos. Journal of Transport Geography, 39(C), 197–2017.

Hasnine, M. S., Weiss, A., & Nurul Habib, K. (2017). Stated preference survey pivoted on revealed preference survey for evaluating employer-based travel demand management strategies. Transportation Research Record, 2651(1), 108–117.

Heinen, E., & Mattioli, G. (2019). Does a high level of multimodality mean less car use? An exploration of multimodality trends in England. Transportation, 46(4), 1093–1126.

Jariyasunant, J., Abou-Zeid, M., Carrel, A., Ekambaram, V., Gaker, D., Sengupta, R., & Walker, J. L. (2015). Quantified traveler: Travel feedback meets the cloud to change behavior. Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems, 19(2), 109–124.

Keizer, M., Sargisson, R. J., van Zomeren, M., & Steg, L. (2019). When personal norms predict the acceptability of push and pull car-reduction policies: Testing the ABC model and low-cost hypothesis. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology & Behaviour, 64, 413–423.

Klinger, T. (2017). Moving from monomodality to multimodality? Changes in mode choice of new residents. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 104, 221–237.

Ko, J., & Kim, D. (2017). Employer-based travel demand management program: Employer’s choice and effectiveness. Transport Policy, 59, 1–9.

Kuehn, B. (2019). The introduction of micromobility and the future of Portland transportation.

Lagerberg, B. (1997). Washington State’s commute trip reduction program: Phase 1: Assessment and implications for program design. Transportation Research Record, 1598(1), 36–42.

Li, T., Chen, P., & Tian, Y. (2021). Personalized incentive-based peak avoidance and drivers’ travel time-savings. Transport Policy, 100, 68–80.

Litman, T. (2005). London congestion pricing – Implications for other cities. CESifo DICE Report, 3, 17–21.

Loo, B. P. Y., Chen, C., & Chan, E. T. H. (2010). Rail-based transit-oriented development: Lessons from New York City and Hong Kong. Landscape and Urban Planning, 97(3), 202–212.

Lopez-Aqueres, W. (1993). Conceptual framework to study the effectiveness of employer trip-reduction programs. Transportation Research Record, 1404, 55.

Ma, L., Mulley, C., & Liu, W. (2015). Social marketing and the built environment: What matters for travel behaviour change?

Meloni, I., Sanjust, B., & Spissu, E. (2012). Soft transport policy measures: Implementing personalised travel planning. European Transport Conference 2012, Location: Glasgow, Scotland.

Oren, C. N. (1998a). Detail and implementation: The example of employee trip reduction. Virginia Environmental Law Journal, 17(2), 123–186.

Oren, C. N. (1998b). Getting commuters out of their cars: What went wrong? Stanford Environmental Law Journal, 17(141), 106.

Oren, C. N. (1998c). How a mandate came from hell: The making of the federal employee trip reduction program. Environmental Law, 28(2), 267–373.

Sammer, G., & Saleh, W. (2009). Travel demand management and road user pricing: Success, failure and feasibility (1st ed.). Routledge.

Shaheen, S., Cohen, A., & Bayen, A. (2018). The benefits of carpooling. UC Berkeley Working Paper.

Shin, E. J. (2020). Commuter benefits programs: Impacts on mode choice, VMT, and spillover effects. Transport Policy, 94, 11–22.

Stewart, J. (1994). Reducing drive-alone rates at small employer sites: Costs and benefits of local trip reduction ordinances-Pasadena towers case study. Transportation Research Record, 159–159.

Taylor, B. D. (2004). The politics of congestion mitigation. Transport Policy, 11(3), 299–302.

Taylor, M. A. (2007). Voluntary travel behavior change programs in Australia: The carrot rather than the stick in travel demand management. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 1(3), 173–192.

Teodorović, D., & Dell’Orco, M. (2008). Mitigating traffic congestion: Solving the ride-matching problem by bee colony optimization. Transportation Planning & Technology, 31(2), 135–152.

Teulada, B. S. di, & Meloni, I. (2016). Individual persuasive eco‐travel technology, a mobile persuasive application for implementing voluntary travel behaviour change programmes. IET Intelligent Transport Systems, 10(4).

Tulusan, J., Staake, T., & Fleisch, E. (2012). Providing eco-driving feedback to corporate car drivers: What impact does a smartphone application have on their fuel efficiency? Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, 212–215.

Wang, C., Quddus, M. A., & Ison, S. G. (2009). Impact of traffic congestion on road accidents: A spatial analysis of the M25 motorway in England. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 41(4), 798–808.

Winters, P. L., Perez, R. A., Joshi, A. D., & Perone, J. (2005). Work site trip reduction model and manual. Transportation Research Record, 1924(1), 197–206.

Zaman, H., & Habib, K. M. N. (2011). Commuting mode choice in the context of travel demand management (TDM) policies: An empirical investigation in Edmonton, Alberta. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 38(4), 433–443.

Chapter 4: Travel and the Built Environment

Cao, X. (2014). Residential self-selection in the relationships between the built environment and travel behavior: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Transport & Land Use, 7(3), 1-3.

Cao, X., Mokhtarian, P. L., & Handy, S. L. (2007). Cross-sectional and quasi-panel explorations of the connection between the built environment and auto ownership. Environment and Planning A, 39(4), 830-847.

Cervero, R. (2002). Built environments and mode choice: toward a normative framework. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 7(4), 265-284.

De Vos, J., Mokhtarian, P. L., Schwanen, T., Van Acker, V., & Witlox, F. (2016). Travel mode choice and travel satisfaction: bridging the gap between decision utility and experienced utility. Transportation, 43(5), 771-796.

Ettema, D., & Nieuwenhuis, R. (2017). Residential self-selection and travel behaviour: What are the effects of attitudes, reasons for location choice and the built environment? Journal of Transport Geography, 59, 146-155. doi:

Ewing, R., & Cervero, R. (2001). Travel and the built environment: A synthesis. Transportation research record, 1780(1), 87-114. doi:10.3141/1780-10

Ewing, R., & Cervero, R. (2010). Ewing, R. and Cervero, R. (2010) Travel and the built environment: A meta analysis. Journal of the American Planning Association. 76(3), 265-294. doi:10.1080/01944361003766766

Ewing, R., Pendall, R., & Chen, D. (2003). Measuring Sprawl and Its Transportation Impacts. Transportation Research Record, 1831(1), 175-183. doi:10.3141/1831-20

Guan, X., & Wang, D. (2019). Residential self-selection in the built environment-travel behavior connection: Whose self-selection? Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 67, 16-32. doi:

Handy, S. (2018). Enough with the “D’s” already—Let’s get back to “A.” Transfers.

Handy, S., Cao, X., Mokhtarian, P. (2005). Correlation or causality between the built environment and travel behavior? Evidence from Northern California,Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 10(6), 427-444.

Ko, J., Lee, S., & Byun, M. (2019). Exploring factors associated with commute mode choice: An application of city-level general social survey data. Transport Policy, 75, 36-46.

Kockelman, K. (1997). Travel Behavior as Function of Accessibility, Land Use Mixing, and Land Use Balance: Evidence from San Francisco Bay Area. Transportation Research Record, 1607(1), 116-125. doi:10.3141/1607-16

Li, T., Chen, P., & Tian, Y. (2021). Personalized incentive-based peak avoidance and drivers’ travel time-savings. Transport Policy, 100, 68-80.

Limtanakool, N., Dijst, M., & Schwanen, T. (2006). The influence of socioeconomic characteristics, land use and travel time considerations on mode choice for medium- and longer-distance trips. Journal of Transport Geography, 14(5), 327-341.

Litman, T. (2022a). Evaluating accessibility for transport planning: Victoria Transport Policy Institute.

Litman, T. (2022b) Land use impacts on transport: How land use factors affect travel behavior. Victoria Transport Policy Institute.

Manaugh, K. and El-Geniedy, M. (2012). What makes travel ‘local’: Defining and understanding local travel behavior. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 5(3), 15. doi:10.5198/jtlu.v5i3.300]

Mokhtarian, P. L., & Chen, C. (2004). TTB or not TTB, that is the question: a review and analysis of the empirical literature on travel time (and money) budgets. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 38(9), 643-675.

Mokhtarian P. L, and Salomon, I. (2001) How derived is the demand for travel? Some conceptual and measurement considerations, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 35(8),  695-719.

Nelson, A.  (2017) Compact Development Reduces VMT: Evidence and Application for Planners—Comment on “Does Compact Development Make People Drive Less?”, Journal of the American Planning Association, 83(1), 36-41, DOI: 10.1080/01944363.2016.1246378

Stopher, P. R., Ahmed, A., & Liu, W. (2017). Travel time budgets: new evidence from multi-year, multi-day data. Transportation, 44(5), 1069-1082.

Urban Land Institute. (2010). Land Use and Driving The Role Compact Development Can Plan in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Urban Land Institute. Washinton D.C.

Wardman, M., & Toner, J. (2020). Is generalised cost justified in travel demand analysis? Transportation, 47(1), 75-108. doi:10.1007/s11116-017-9850-7

Williams, K., & Seggerman, K. (2014). Multimodal transportation best practices and model element.

Yang, H., & Bell, M. G. (1998). Models and algorithms for road network design: a review and some new developments. Transport Reviews, 18(3), 257-278. doi:10.1080/01441649808717016

Zgonc, B., Tekavčič, M., & Jakšič, M. (2019). The impact of distance on mode choice in freight transport. European Transport Research Review, 11(1), 10. doi:10.1186/s12544-019-0346-8

Zhang, L., Hong, J., Nasri, A., & Shen, Q. (2012). How built environment affects travel behavior: A comparative analysis of the connections between land use and vehicle miles traveled in US cities. Journal of Transport & Land Use, 5(3), 40-52.

Zhang, W. & Zhang, M. (2017). Incorporating land use and pricing policies for reducing car dependence: Analytical framework and empirical evidence. Urban Studies. 55(13).

Chapter 5 Planning Roadway Networks

Broward County Complete Streets Guidelines (October 2013). Broward Metropolitan Planning Organization.

City of Charlotte, North Carolina. (2019). Zoning ordinance: Chapter 15, transit oriented development districts.

City of Fort Worth. (2020). City of Fort Worth Texas: Master thoroughfare plan (2020 update).

City of Seattle. (2016). Seattle right-of-way improvements manual.

City of Seattle. (2021). Update on the modal integration policy framework.

Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company. (n.d.). Rural-urban transect.

Institute of Transportation Engineers/Congress for the New Urbanism. (2010). Designing walkable urban thoroughfares: A context sensitive approach (An ITE Recommended Practice). Washington, D.C.: ITE, 2010.

Institute of Transportation Engineers. (2011). Planning roadway systems: An ITE recommended practice. Washington, D.C.

Kimley Horn and Associates, Inc. (2013) Broward County complete streets guidelines: Providing guidance for developing safer and healthier streets accommodating all users.

Litman, T. (2021) Parking Management: Strategies, evaluation and planning. Victoria Transport Policy Institute.

Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC). (2019). Perfect fit parking. Boston, MA

Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC). (2011). Sustainable transportation: Parking toolkit, Boston, MA.

Montgomery County, Maryland. (April 2019). Veirs Mill Road corridor master plan.

NACTO. (2017). Curb appeal: Curbside management strategies for improving transit reliability.

Orange County, Florida. (2017). I-Drive District overlay zone. Division 4.5/Ordinance No. 2017-03 Sec. 38-861.

Oregon Transportation and Growth Management Program. (1999). Main Street…when a highway runs through it: A handbook for Oregon communities, Salem, Oregon.

Porter, J., Lee, J., Davis, M., Bryan, S., Corso, P., & Rathbun, S. (2019). Complete streets state laws & provisions: An analysis of legislative content and the state policy landscape, 1972–2018. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 12(1), 619-635.

Shoup, D. (2003). Truth in transportation planning. Journal of Transportation and Statistics. Vol 6, No 1.

Smart Growth America. (2018). The elements of a complete streets policy. National Complete Streets Coalition.

USDOT. Active transportation and demand management: Active parking management. Accessed online 9/23/2021

Williams, K. (2020). NCHRP synthesis 549: Incorporating roadway access management into local ordinances, Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies.

Williams K. and J. Barber. (2017). Model access management policies and regulations for Florida cities and counties, 2nd Edition. Center for Urban Transportation Research.

Williams, K., V.G. Stover, K. Dixon, P. Demosthenes, F. Broen, L. Brown, D. Huntington, R. Layton, and K. Seggerman. (2014). Access management manual, 2nd Edition. Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies.

Wikimedia Commons. (n.d.). Green transport hierarchy pictogram.

Chapter 6:  Walking and Cycling

AARP, (2022). Walk Audit Tool Kit.

Andrews, E. (n.d.). The bicycle’s bumpy history.

Besser, L. M., & Dannenberg, A. L. (2005). Walking to public transit: Steps to help meet physical activity recommendations. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 29(4), 273–280.

Brennan Ramirez, L. K., Hoehner, C. M., Brownson, R. C., Cook, R., Orleans, C. T., Hollander, M., Barker, D. C., Bors, P., Ewing, R., Killingsworth, R., Petersmarck, K., Schmid, T., & Wilkinson, W. (2006). Indicators of activity-friendly communities: An evidence-based consensus process. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 31(6), 515–524.

Bunn, F., Collier, T., Ker, K., Roberts, I., & Wentz, R. (2003). Traffic calming for the prevention of road traffic injuries: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Injury Prevention, 9(3), 200–204.

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Cervero, R., & Kockelman, K. (1997). Travel demand and the 3Ds: Density, diversity, and design. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 2(3), 199–219.

ChangeLab Solutions. (n.d.). The planning perspective on health: Community health as a goal of good design.

Cheng, I. (Ed.). (2010). Active design guidelines: Promoting physical activity and health design.

City of El Paso. (2012). Plan El Paso: City of El Paso, Texas comprehensive plan.

Ewing, R., & Kreutzer, R. (2006). Understanding the relationship between public health and the built environment.

FHWA. (n.d.-a). FHWA course on bicycle and pedestrian transportation.

FHWA. (n.d.-b). Medians and pedestrian refuge islands in urban and suburban areas.

FHWA. (1999). Guidebook on methods to estimate non-motorized travel (FHWA-RD-98-166).

FHWA. (2006). Evaluation of safety, design, and operation of shared-use paths—Final report (FHWA-HRT-05-137).

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Chapter 7: Public Transportation

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Chapter 8 Evaluating System Performance

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