Lab Activities

A list of words is provided below that you are expected to identify, learn, and label on the models provided. Note that not all models will have some of the organs/structures, so be sure to find them on an alternate model. You must use all the words provided. Using the colored tape provided, write the number that corresponds to the organ/structure and place them on your model. When complete, notify your TA so they may check your work.

For each additional station, directions will be provided for the activity.

 

Station One: Brain

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: For the following structures, be able to differentiate between left and right halves when applicable.

Cerebrum

#1 cerebral cortex

#3 temporal lobes

#5 occipital lobe

#2 frontal lobe

#4 parietal lobes

#6 insula

Diencephalon

#7 thalamus

#9 mammillary bodies

#11 pineal glands

#8 hypothalamus

#10 epithalamus

Brainstem

#12 midbrain

#14 superior colliculi

#16 cerebral peduncles

#18 medulla oblongata

#13 tectum (corpora quadrigemina)

#15 inferior colliculi

#17 pons

Cerebellum

#19 arbor vitae

#21 vermis

#20 folia

#22 cerebellar peduncles

Other important structures

#23 basal nuclei

#25 fornix

#27 pituitary gland

#29 optic chiasm

#24 corpus callosum

#26 cingulate gyrus

#28 infundibulum

 

Station Two: Unique Features and Pathway of CSF

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

Note: For the following structures, be able to differentiate between left and right halves when applicable.

Composition of the Brain

#1 gray matter

#2 white matter

Superficial Characteristics of the Brain

#3 gyri (convulsions)

#5 sulci

#7 postcentral gyrus

#9 central sulcus

#11 transverse fissure

#4 fissures

#6 precentral gyrus

#8 lateral cerebral sulcus

#10 parieto-occiptal sulcus

#12 longitudinal fissure

Cranial Meninges

These features may not be shown on models, but it is important to be able to identify them in diagrams and on the brains that you will dissect.

#13 dura mater

#15 falx cerebelli

#17 arachnoid mater

#14 falx cerebri

#16 tentorium cerebelli

#18 pia mater

Ventricles and Associated Structures

Using the terms in the table below, determine the pathway of cerebrospinal fluid.

#19 lateral ventricles

#21 interventricular foramen

#23 cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of midbrain)

#25 choroid plexuses

#20 septum pellucidum

#22 third ventricles

#24 fourth ventricles

#26 cerebrospinal fluid

 

Station Three: Cranial Nerves

Label the models of this station with the number that corresponds to the appropriate structure of the peripheral nervous system using the colored tape. When you are finished, ask your TA to check your labeling. Before leaving the station, remove all the labels you have placed on the model.

While learning the names, corresponding numbers and location of each of the cranial nerves, be sure to connect these to their functions and the structures they innervate.

#1 olfactory nerve (I)

#4 trochlear nerve (IV)

#7 facial nerve (VII)

#10 vagus nerve (X)

#2 optic nerve (II)

#5 trigeminal nerve (V)

#8 vestibulocochlear/ acoustic nerve (VIII)

#11 Accessory/spinal nerve (XI)

#3 oculomotor nerve (III)

#6 abducens nerve (VI)

#9 glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)

#12 hypoglossal nerve (XII)

 

Station 4: Histology

Sketch the slides available for today’s lab and specify the magnitude at which you are observing/ sketching. Be sure to identify and label your sketch with the corresponding structures listed beneath each slide.

 

 

Station Five: Brain Dissection without Meninges

  • Orientate the brain such that the posterior aspect containing the brain stem is facing you. Obtain the scalpel from your kit and place it on the anterior (farthest from you) portion of the longitudinal fissure. Using a scalpel, firmly press down on the brain while simultaneously bringing the scalpel carefully towards you; this makes a clean incision down the sagittal plane of the brain. (DO NOT make sawing motions with the scalpel.) Continue to make incisions until you have separated the brain into its two hemispheres.
  • Obtain pins from the table and place them into as many structures as you can identify. Your lab TA will come around and ask you to identify the pins you have placed.

*If you are the last table to use this station, be sure to clean off the dissection kits in the lab sink.

 

Station Six: Brain Dissection with Meninges

  • The brain you will receive at this station will have the tough, fibrous meninges still surrounding it. Pinch this tissue between your fingers to separate it from the brain. Using the scissors in your dissection kit, carefully make an incision in the tissue until you have created a hole from which to cut. Cut the meninx, make sure that it comes away from the brain without pulling on the brain’s outer cortex.
  • Once the outermost meninx has been removed orientate the brain such that the posterior aspect containing the brain stem is facing you. Obtain the scalpel from your kit and place it on the anterior (farthest from you) portion of the longitudinal fissure of the brain. Using the scalpel, firmly press down on the brain while simultaneously bringing the scalpel carefully towards you; this makes a clean incision down the sagittal plane of the brain. (DO NOT make sawing motions with the scalpel.) Continue to make incisions until you have separated the brain into its two main hemispheres.
  • Obtain pins from the table and place them on as many structures as you can identify. Your lab TA will come around and ask you to identify the pins you have placed.

*If you are the last table to use this station, be sure to clean off the dissection kits in the lab sink.

License

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Lab Activities by Malgosia Wilk-Blaszczak is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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