Vocabulary

Anatomical Language

Body Planes Anatomical regions
Frontal (Coronal) Cephalic
Transverse Ocular
Sagittal Auricular (Otic)
Buccal
Directional terms Nasal
Anterior (Ventral) Oral
Posterior (Dorsal) Axillary
Proximal Cubital
Distal Antecubital
Superior Carpal (Carpus)
Inferior Palmar
Lateral Thoracic
Medial Abdominal Umbilical
Deep Lumbar
Superficial Inguinal
Parietal Pubic
Visceral Gluteal
Patellar
Abdominal regions Popliteal
Right hypochondriac Crural
Epigastric Sural
Left hypochondriac Tarsal (Tarsus)
Right lumbar Pedal
Umbilical Planter
Left lumbar
Right iliac
Hypogastric (Pelvic)
Left iliac

TISSUEs

Basic tissue types Connective tissues
Epithelial Connective tissue cells:
Connective Fibroblasts
Muscle Macrophages
Nervous Plasma cells
Mast cells
Epithelial Tissues Adipocytes
Classification of Epithelial tissue:
*Based on arrangement of layers* Connective tissue fibers:
Simple Collagen fibers
Pseudostratified Elastic fibers
Stratified Reticular fibers
*Based on cell shapes* Extracellular matrix:
Squamous
Cuboidal
Columnar
*based on Function*  
Covering and lining
Glandular
            Endocrine glands
            Exocrine glands
Absorptive
Transitional epithelium

Bones and Bone Markings

Classification of the bones Axial skeleton skull
Long bone Frontal bone
Short bone Parietal bone
Flat bone Temporal bone
Irregular bone
Sesamoid bone
Bone histology and formation Occipital bone
Intramembranous ossification
Endochondral ossification Foramen Magnum
Osteoprogenitor cells Ethmoid bone
Osteoblasts
Osteocytes
Osteoclasts
Spongy Bone Sphenoid bone
            Trabeculae Sella turcica
Compact bone Zygomatic bone
            Osteon Mandible
            Lamellae Maxilla
            Lacunae Palatine bone
Nasal bone
Parts of the bone Vomer
Epiphysis Lacrimal bone
Metaphysis Hyoid bone
Epiphyseal Line/ Plate
Articular cartilage
Periosteum
Endosteum
Medullary cavity (marrow cavity)
Red bone marrow
Yellow bone marrow

 

Special features of the skull  
Zygomatic arch Thoracic Cage
            Zygomatic process of temporal bone Sternum
            Temporal process of zygomatic bone Ribs
Sutures
            Coronal sutures Clavicle
            Sagittal sutures
Scapula
Vertebral column Acromion
*Parts of the typical vertebra* Glenoid cavity
Body of the vertebrae Coracoid process
Vertebral foramen Supraspinous fossa
Lamina Infraspinous fossa
Spinous process Humerus
Transverse process Head
Trochlea
Regions of the vertebral column Capitulum
Cervical region (recognize atlas and axis vertebral) Medial epicondyle
Transverse foramen (in cervical vertebrae only) Lateral epicondyle
Atlas (C1) Coronoid fossa
Axis (C2) Olecranon fossa
Dens of axis
Thoracic region
Lumbar region
Sacrum
Coccyx
Intervertebral foramen
Intervertebral disc

 

Ulna Femur
Olecranon (Olecranon process) Head of femur
Coronoid process Neck of femur
Trochlear notch Greater trochanter
Head Lesser trochanter
Lateral condyle
Radius Medial condyle
Head
Styloid process Patella
   
Carpals Tibia
Metacarpals Medial malleolus
Phalanges
  Fibula
Hip bones Head
Ilium Lateral malleolus
Ischium Tarsals
  Metatarsals
Pubic arch Phalanges
Pubic symphysis  
Acetabulum Blood Supply
Periosteal arteries/veins
Nutrient artery/veins

SPINAL CORD AND  PERIPHERAL NERVES

Coverings of the spinal cord External anatomy of the spinal cord
Vertebral column Anterior (ventral) median fissure
Spinal meninges Posterior (dorsal) median sulcus
            Dura mater
            Arachnoid mater Cross sction of the spinal cord
                        Subarachnoid space Grey matter
Pia mater Posterior (dorsal) gray horn
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Anterior (ventral) gray horn
Epidural space Lateral gray horn
White matter
Spinal cord Posterior (dorsal) white columns
Spinal cord segments Lateral white columns
            Cervical segments Anterior (ventral) white columns
            Thoracic segment Central canal
            Lumbar segment:
            Sacral segment
Cervical enlargement
Lumbar enlargement
Conus medullaris
Filum terminale
Cauda equina

 

Plexuses and peripheral nerves Spinal nerves
Cervical plexus Anterior (ventral) root
            C1-C5 Posterior (dorsal) root
            Phrenic nerve Posterior (dorsal) root ganglion
Brachial Plexus Spinal nerve
C5-C8, T1 Rami communicantes
            Median nerve
Radial nerve Number of spinal nerves
Ulnar nerve Cervical nerves (8)
Lumbar plexus Thoracic nerves (12)
            L1-L4 Lumbar nerves (5)
Sacral plexus Sacral nerves (5)
            L4-L5, S1-S4 Coccygeal nerves (1)
Sciatic nerve
            Tibial nerve
            Common fibular nerve
Dermatomes

Brain and Cranial Nerves

Nervous system divisions Brain Anatomy
Central nervous system Cerebrum
Peripheral nervous system             Frontal lobe
Somatic nervous system             Temporal lobe
Autonomic nervous system             Parietal lobe
Sympathetic             Occipital lobe
Parasympathetic Insula
Corpus callosum
Sensory = afferent Basal Nuclei
Motor = efferent
Limbic System
Grey matter             Amygdala
White matter             Hippocampus
Gyrus pl. gyri             Cingulate gyrus
Central sulcus
Cerebellum
Meninges Cerebellar hemispheres
Dura mater Vermis
Folia
Arbor vitae
Falx cerebri
Diencephalon
Hypothalamus
Arachnoid mater Thalamus
Pia mater Epithalamus
Pineal gland
Ventricles             Pituitary gland
Lateral ventricles (2) Infundibulum
Interventricular foramen Medial eminence
Third ventricle Brain stem
Cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of midbrain) Medulla oblongata
Fourth ventricle Pons
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Midbrain
Choroid plexuses              Cerebral peduncles
            Tectum
             Corpora quadrigemina
             Superior and inferior colliculi
             Reticular formation

 

Cerebral Cortex Organization
Primary sensory cortex – postcentral gyrus
Primary motor cortex – precentral gyrus
Primary visual cortex – occipital lobe
Primary auditory cortex – temporal lobe
Broca’s speech area – for making speech
Wernicke’s area – for understanding speech
Cranial Nerves and their function
I.               Olfactory – sensory
II.              Optic- sensory
III.            Occulomotor- motor + parasympathetic
IV.            Trochlear- motor
V.             Trigeminal – motor + sensory, mostly sensory
VI.            Abducens- motor
VII.          Facial – motor + sensory + parasympathetic, mostly motor
VIII.         Vestibulocochlear (acoustic)- sensory
IX.            Glossopharyngeal- motor + sensory + parasympathetic
X.              Vagus- motor + sensory + parasympathetic, mostly parasympathetic
XI.            Spinal accessory – motor
XII.           Hypoglossal- motor

Somatic Nervous System

Sensation Somatic motor pathways (to voluntary muscles)
Perception 2-neuron pathway
Sensory modality Sensory tracts
Medial-lateral rule Posterior (dorsal) columns (fine touch and vibration)
First synapse in the medulla oblongata
Somatic Sensory Pathways Crosses to the other side in the medulla
First order neurons Gracile fasciculus
Second order neurons Cuneate fasciculus
Third order neurons Spinothalamic tracts
First synapse in the spinal cord at the level of entry
Dorsal root ganglion Crosses to the other side at the level of entry
Posterior gray horns Lateral spinothalamic tract (pain and temperature)
Thalamus Anterior spinothalamic tract (crude touch)
Primary somatosensory area Spinocerebellar tracts (unconscious)
Sensory homunculus Posterior spinocerebellar tract
Anterior spinocerebellar tract
Conscious motor tracts
Corticospinal tract (pyramidal tract)
Lateral corticospinal tract
Anterior corticospinal tract
Corticobulbar tracts
Upper motor neurons
            Pyramidal cells in precentral gyrus (primary motor cortex)
            Pyramids of medulla
Decussation of pyramids (most fibers cross to the other side)
1st synapse in spinal cord at the level of exit
Lower motor neurons
Motor homunculus
Internal capsule
Subconscious motor tracts
Rubrospinal tract
Tectospinal tract
Vestibulospinal tract
Reticulospinal tract

Autonomic Nervous System Word List

Preganglionic neuron Sympathetic division
Autonomic ganglion Lateral horns T1 to L2
Postganglionic neuron Sympathetic ganglia
Preganglionic vs postganglionic fibers Sympathetic trunk
Dual innervation Prevertebral ganglia
Adrenal Medulla
Autonomic Plexuses  
Cardiac plexus Parasympathetic (cranio-sacral) division
Celiac (solar) plexus Vagus nerve
Superior mesenteric plexus Sacral parasympathetic neurons
Inferior mesenteric plexus Parasympathetic ganglia in the walls of the target organs
Renal plexus
Hypogastric plexus

Special Senses

Eyeball Muscles of the eye
Anterior cavity (has 2 chambers) Superior rectus
            Aqueous humor Inferior rectus
Posterior cavity (not chamber! See a ppt) Lateral rectus
Vitreous humor Medial rectus
Lens Superior oblique
Fibrous Tunic Inferior oblique
Sclera Palpabrae
Cornea Conjunctiva
Vascular Tunic Lacrimal glands
Iris Ear
Pupil External (outer) ear
Ciliary bodies Middle ear
Choroid Inner ear
Neural Tunic External ear
Retina Auricle
Macula lutea External auditory (acoustic) meatus (canal)
Fovea centralis Tympanic membrane
Optic disc (blind spot) Ceruminous glands
Layers of the retina from outside of the eyeball to the inside) Middle Ear
Photoreceptors: Rods and Cones Auditory ossicles
Bipolar cells Stapes
Ganglion cells Incus
Axons form optic nerve (CN II) Malleus
Horizontal cells Oval window
Amacrine cells Auditory (Eustachian) tube
Inner ear- bony labyrinth Olfaction
Semicircular canals Olfactory epithelium
Vestibule Olfactory receptor cells
Cochlea Olfactory nerve CN I
Perilymph Cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone
Olfactory foramina
Inner ear- membranous labyrinth Olfactory bulb
Semicircular canals Olfactory tract
Ampulla
Cupula Taste
Urticle 5 primary tastes: sour, sweet, bitter, salt, umami
Saccule Taste buds
Cochlea Lingual papillae on the tongue, soft palate, pharynx, epiglottis
Endolymph Filiform papillae
Maculae Fungiform papillae
Otoliths Circumvallate papillae
Scala media Innervated by
Scala tympani CN VII
Organ of Corti CN IX
CN X

Respiratory System Word List

Upper respiratory system Trachea and bronchial tree
Nose Tracheal cartilages
Root Carina
Bridge Primary (main) bronchi (L/R)
Apex Secondary (lobar) bronchi
naris (narises) Tertiary (segmental) bronchi
Nasal Cavity Bronchioles
Nasal Conchae (superior, middle, inferior) Terminal bronchioles
Nasal meatuses (superior, middle, inferior) Respiratory bronchioles
Pharynx Alveolar ducts
Nasopharynx Alveolar sacs
Oropharynx Alveoli
Laryngopharynx Type I Alveolar Cells
Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid) Type II Alveolar Cells
Surfactant
Lower respiratory system  
Larynx Lung external features
Epiglottis Superior Lobe
Vocal cords Inferior Lobe
Glottis Middle Lobe
Larynx cartilages Cardiac Notch
Thyroid cartilage Horizontal fissure
Cricoid cartilage Oblique fissure
Cuneiform cartilage Apex of lung
Corniculate cartilage Base of lung
Arytenoid cartilage Hilum
Coverings of lungs Muscles of Exhalation
Parietal pleura Internal Intercostal Muscles
Visceral pleura External oblique
Pleural cavity Internal oblique
Transverse abdominis
Primary muscles of inhalation Rectus abdominis
Diaphragm  
External intercostal muscles Blood Supply to respiratory system
Accessory Muscles of Inhalation **Note the difference between pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation **
Scalenes Systemic circulation
Sternocleidomastoid Bronchial arteries
Coverings of lungs Bronchial veins
Parietal pleura Pulmonary circulation
Visceral pleura Pulmonary trunk
Pleural cavity Pulmonary artery
Pulmonary veins

Blood Components

Blood components Thrombocytes (Platelets)
Blood plasma Thrombopoiesis
Plasma proteins Myeloid stem cell
            Albumins Megakaryocyte
            Globulins
            Fibrinogen Leukocytes (White blood cells)
Serum Myeloid stem cell line
Formed elements    Granular leukocytes
            Erythrocytes      Neutrophils
Leukocytes      Eosinophils
Platelets      Basophils
     Agranular leukocytes
Blood Cell Formation Monocytes
Hemopoiesis (Hematopoiesis) Macrophages
Red bone marrow
Pluripotent stem cells Lymphoid stem cell line
     Lymphocytes
Erythrocytes (Red blood cells)          T cells
Erythropoiesis          B cells
Reticulocytes          Natural killer cells
Hemoglobin
ABO blood group system
Rh blood group system

Blood Vessels

Blood circuits Types of blood vessels
Pulmonary circulation **Know difference between arteries and veins**
Systemic circulation Arteries
Coronary circulation Elastic arteries (conducting arteries)
Hepatic portal circulation Muscular arteries (distributing arteries)
Anastomoses (collateral arteries) Arterioles (resistance vessels)
Arterio-arterial (2 or more arteries supplying blood to the same capillary bed) Capillaries
Arterial-venous (bypassing capillary beds)       Continuous capillaries
      Fenestrated capillaries
Layers of blood vessel walls       Sinusoid capillaries
Tunica interna (intima) Veins
Tunica media       Venules
Tunica externa (adventitia)
Vasa vasorum

 

Major blood vessels of pulmonary circulation Blood flow to the brain
Pulmonary trunk Aorta
Pulmonary arteries Right/left common carotid artery
Pulmonary capillaries Right/left internal carotid arteries
Pulmonary veins Vertebral arteries
  Basilar artery
Major arteries of systemic circulation Circle of Willis (cerebral arterial circle)
**Make note of the paired branches vs unpaired arteries and veins** Left/Right middle cerebral arteries
Aorta Left/Right ophthalmic arteries
Ascending aorta
Arch of the Aorta Arteries of the upper limbs
Descending aorta Left/Right subclavian arteries (note the differences in their origins)
Brachiocephalic trunk Left/Right axillary arteries
Common carotid artery Left/Right brachial arteries
Internal carotid artery Left/Right radial arteries
External carotid artery Left/Right ulnar arteries
Carotid sinus
Common iliac artery

 

Arteries of abdominal cavity Veins of the upper limbs
Celiac trunk Left/Right radial vein
Superior mesenteric artery Left/Right ulnar vein
Inferior mesenteric artery Left/Right median cubital vein
Left/Right brachial vein
Arteries of the lower limbs Left/Right axillary vein
Left/Right common iliac arteries Left/Right cephalic vein
Left/Right femoral arteries Left/Right subclavian vein
Left/Right popliteal arteries Left/Right brachiocephalic veins
Left/Right anterior tibial arteries Superior vena cava
Left/Right posterior tibial arteries
Left/Right fibular (peroneal) arteries Hepatic portal circulation
  Hepatic artery
Veins Portal vein
Superior vena cava Hepatic veins
Inferior vena cava Veins of the lower limbs
Left/Right fibular (peroneal) veins
Veins of the neck and head Left/Right posterior tibial veins
Left/Right internal jugular Left/Right anterior tibial veins
Left/Right external jugular Left/Right popliteal veins
Left/Right subclavian vein Left/Right great saphenous veins
Left/Right brachiocephalic veins Left/Right femoral veins
Left/Right common iliac veins
Inferior vena cava

heart

Cardiac muscle histology Layers of the heart wall
Cardiac myocytes Pericardium
Striated
Mononucleated
Intercalated discs Visceral layer (a.k.a. epicardium)
Epicardium (same as visceral layer of pericardium)
External features of the heart Myocardium
Base Endocardium
Apex
Auricles Internal heart anatomy
Coronary sulcus Right/Left atria
Anterior interventricular sulcus Pectinate muscles
Posterior interventricular sulcus Interatrial septum
Foramen ovale
Positioning of the heart Right/Left ventricles
Mediastinum Interventricular septum
Behind the sternum Fibrous skeleton
Rotated to the left
*Make sure you know what parts of the heart form anterior, posterior, inferior, right and left surfaces
Heart valves and associated structures Coronary Circulation
Cusps (leaflets) Left coronary artery
Right atrioventricular valve – tricuspid valve Anterior interventricular branch
Left atrioventricular valve – bicuspid (mitral valve) Circumflex branch
Chordae tendineae Right coronary artery
Papillary muscles Posterior interventricular branch
Pulmonary semilunar valve Marginal branch
Aortic semilunar valve
Great cardiac vein
Cardiac conduction system Middle cardiac vein
Sinoatrial (SA) node Small cardiac vein
Atrioventricular (AV) node Anterior cardiac veins
Atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) Coronary sinus
Left and right bundle branches
Purkinje fibers

Lymphatic System

Main Four Elements of the System Lymphatic organs
Lymph Red bone marrow
     Lymphocytes Thymus
Lymphatic vessels Lymph nodes
Lymphatic organs and tissues       Afferent lymphatic vessels
        Efferent lymphatic vessels
Lymphatic vessels and circulation Spleen
Lymphatic capillaries       White pulp
      Lacteals        Red pulp
Lymphatic vessels (lymphatics)
      Lymph trunks Lymphatic tissues
      Intestinal trunk Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)
      Bronchomediastinal trunks Aggregated lymphatic follicles (Peyer’s Patches)
       Subclavian trunks Tonsils
       Jugular trunks      Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid)
     Palatine tonsils
Thoracic duct (left lymphatic duct)       Lingual tonsils
Right Lymphatic duct

Digestive System

Parts of the digestive tract (top-down) Layers of the GI tract (from deep to superficial)
Oral cavity (mouth) Mucosa (digestive epithelium)
Esophagus Submucosa
Stomach Muscularis
Duodenum Serosa/adventitia
Liver *Innervation of the gut *
Pancreas Submucosal plexus (plexus of Meissner)
Gallbladder Myenteric plexus (plexus of Auerbach)
Jejunum
Ileum Peritoneum
Colon Parietal layer
Cecum Visceral layer
Appendix Peritoneal cavity
Ascending colon Greater omentum
Transverse colon Lesser omentum
Descending colon Mesentery
Sigmoid colon Intraperitoneal organs
Rectum Retroperitoneal organs
Anal canal
Anus

 

Parts of digestive tract in detail Teeth (denten)
Mouth Crown
Buccal (oral) cavity Neck
Lips (labia) Root
Uvula Enamel
Hard palate Dentin
Soft palate Pulp cavity
            Palatoglossal arch
Palatopharyngeal arch
Root canal
Tonsils Apical foramen
Salivary Glands Incisors
Parotid glands Canines
Submandibular glands Premolars (Bicuspids)
Sublingual glands Molars (Tricuspids)
Saliva
Tongue Pharynx
Papillae Deglutition (swallowing)
Fungiform papillae Esophagus
Circumvallate (vallate) papillae Lower esophageal sphincter (lower esophageal valve) (LES)
Filiform papillae
Lingual frenulum

 

Stomach Pancreas
Rugae Pancreatic duct
Lesser curvature Hepatopancreatic ampulla (ampulla of Vater)
Greater curvature Sphincter of Oddi
Acini (exocrine cells)
Fundus Pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) (endocrine cells)
Body
Pylorus Liver
Pyloric sphincter Right lobe
  Left lobe
Mucosa of the stomach Quadrate lobe
Gastric glands Caudate lobe
Gastric pits Hepatocytes
Parietal cells
Chief cells
G cells

 

Bile ducts Large intestine
Right and left hepatic duct Teniae coli
Common hepatic duct Haustra
Common bile duct Appendix
Cecum
Portal triad of liver lobules Ileocecal sphincter (Ileocecal valve)
Hepatic artery Colon
Hepatic portal vein Ascending colon
Central vein Transverse colon
Hepatic veins Descending colon
Sigmoid colon
Gallbladder Rectum
Cystic duct Anal canal
Anus
Small intestine  
Circular folds (plicae circulares) Blood supply of GI Tract
Villi Sinusoid capillaries
Lacteals
Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum
Ileocecal sphincter (ileocecal valve)

URINARY

Kidneys Filtrate pathway (Nephron)
Ureters Cortical nephron
Urinary bladder Juxtamedullary nephron
Urethra Renal corpuscle
Kidney  
Fibrous capsule
Perinephric fat Afferent arteriole
Renal fascia Efferent arteriole
Renal cortex Proximal convoluted tubule
Renal medulla Nephron loop (Loop of Henle)
Renal pyramids
            Renal papilla
Renal columns Distal convoluted tubule
Renal sinus Collecting duct
Minor calyx Papillary duct
Major calyx
Renal pelvis
Renal hilum
Renal artery
Renal vein

 

Urinary bladder
Detrusor muscle
Trigone
Internal urethral sphincter
External urethral sphincter
 
Blood flow through kidney
Renal artery
Segmental arteries
Interlobar arteries
Arcuate arteries
Cortical radiate arteries
Afferent arterioles
Glomerular capillaries
Efferent arteriole
Peritubular/vasa recta capillaries
Interlobular veins
Arcuate veins
Interlobar veins
Renal vein
Inferior vena cava

muscular system

Muscle cell (Myofibers) Muscles of the head and neck
Sarcolemma Mouth movement
Sarcoplasm Orbicularis oris
Sarcoplasmic reticulum Zygomaticus major and minor
Risorius
Connective tissues of the muscle Mentalis
Endomysium Depressor labii inferioris
Perimysium Depressor anguli oris
Epimysium Levator anguli oris
Muscle fascicles Buccinator
Tendons Depressor labii superioris
Aponeuroses
Eye movement
Organization of fascicles Corrugator supercilii
Parallel muscle fibers Levator palpebrae superioris
Triangular muscle fibers Orbicularis oculi
Pennate muscle fibers
            Unipennate muscle fibers
            Bipennate muscle fibers
            Multipennate muscle fibers
Circular muscle fibers

 

Muscles of the eyes and their action
Superior rectus-moves eyeballs superiorly (elevation) and medially (adduction), and rotates them medially (intorsion)
Superior oblique-moves eyeballs inferiorly (depression) and laterally (abduction), and rotates them medially (intorsion)
Levator palpebrae superioris-elevates upper eyelids (opens eyes)
Inferior oblique-moves eyeballs superiorly (elevation) and laterally (abduction) and rotates them laterally (extorsion)
Inferior rectus-moves eyeballs inferiorly (depression) and medially (adduction), and rotates them laterally (extorsion)
Lateral rectus-moves eyeballs laterally (abduction)
Medial rectus-moves eyeballs medially (adduction)

 

Muscles of respiration Rotator Cuff Muscle (SITS)
External intercostals Supraspinatus*
Diaphragm Infraspinatus*
Scalenes* Teres minor*
Sternocleidomastoid* Subscapularis*
Internal intercostals Teres major*
Rectus abdominis Coracobrachialis
Internal oblique
External oblique Muscles of upper limb
Transverse abdominis Deltoid
Biceps Brachii (long and short head)
Triceps Brachii (medial, lateral, and long head)
Brachialis
Brachioradialis

Joints and Articulations

Joints (Arthroses) Classification of joints based on range of motion
Fibrous joints Synarthrosis
Sutures Amphiarthrosis
Syndesmoses
Gomphosis
Interosseous membranes Diarthroses
Cartilaginous joints Classification based on mechanics of movement
Synchondroses Plane joints
Symphyses Hinge joints
Pubic symphysis Pivot joints
Epiphyseal cartilages
Intervertebral articulations and ligaments
Synovial joints Intervertebral discs
Synovial cavity Nucleus pulposus
Synovial membrane Anulus fibrosus
Synovial fluid Supraspinous ligament
Articular cartilage Interspinous ligament
Articular capsule (joint capsule) Anterior longitudinal ligament
Accessory structures Posterior longitudinal ligament
            Ligaments
            Tendons
            Bursae
Tendon sheaths
            Menisci

Integumentary System

Skin (Cutaneous membrane) Cells of epidermis
Epidermis Keratinocytes
Dermis Melanocytes
Hypodermis- Subcutaneous (subQ) layer Intraepidermal macrophages (Langerhans cells)
Thin (hairy) skin Tactile epithelial cells (Merkel cells)
Thick (hairless) skin
Pigmentation of skin  
Melanin Dermis
            Eumelanin Papillary region
            Pheomelanin Areolar tissue
  Dermal papillae
Layers of epidermis Reticular region
Stratum basale (germinativum) Tension lines (lines of cleavage)
Epidermal ridges
Stratum germinativum
Stratum spinosum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum lucidum
Stratum corneum
Accessory structures of the skin Nails
Hairs Nail body (plate)
Shaft Free edge
Hair follicle Nail root
Hair matrix Lunula
Papilla of the hair Hyponychium
Bulb Nail bed
Hair root plexus Eponychium (cuticle)
Arrector pili muscle Nail matrix
Skin Glands
Sebaceous (oil) glands
Sebum
Sudoriferous (sweat) glands
Eccrine (merocrine) sweat glands
Apocrine sweat glands
Ceruminous glands
Cerumen

Endocrine System

Hypothalamus Thyroid Gland
“short” vs “long” axons Left and right lateral lobes
Supraoptic nucleus Isthmus
Paraventricular nucleus Follicles
Follicular cells – cuboidal epithelium
Pituitary gland (Hypophysis) Thyroglobulin
Sella turcica of sphenoid bone Parafollicular cells
Infundibulum Parathyroid Glands
Medial eminence Chief cells- PTH
Anterior pituitary (Adenohypophysis) Oxyphils
Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis)
Pituicytes Adrenal (Suprarenal) Glands
Herring’s bodies Adrenal cortex
Blood supply  
Hypophyseal portal circulation Zona reticularis- gonadal steroids
Superior hypophyseal artery Adrenal medulla
Fenestrated capillaries Chromaffin cells- epinephrine
Hypophyseal veins
Inferior hypophyseal artery

 

Pancreas Other endocrine organs
Islets of Langerhans (pancreatic islets) Thymus
            Alpha cells- glucagon Skin
            Beta cells- insulin Vitamin D
            Delta cells- somatostatin Kidneys
            F cells- pancreatic peptide (PP) Calcitriol
Acinar cells, acini (exocrine) Testes
  Interstitial cells- testosterone
Pineal Gland  
Pinealocytes- melatonin Ovaries
Calcifications Follicular cells– estrogens

 

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Human Anatomy Lab Manual by Malgosia Wilk-Blaszczak is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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