Course Marking Legislation

California. 2016. SB 1359: Public postsecondary education: Course material.

Colorado. 2018. HB 18-1331: Open educational resources – council – grant program – guidelines – appropriation.

Louisiana. 2019. SB 117: Provides relative to postsecondary textbooks and instructional materials.

Oregon. 2015. HB 2871: Relating to higher education; and declaring an emergency.

Texas. 2017. SB 810: Relating to the purchase and use of open educational resources.

Virginia. 2019. HB 2380: Higher educational institutions, public; online course catalogue, no-cost/low-cost course materials.

Washington. 2017. HB 1375: Informing students of low-cost course materials for community and technical college courses.

General References

Acalog Catalog Management. 2020. Digarc. Catalog software.

Achieving the Dream. 2020. “Open Educational Resources (OER) Degree Initiative.”

Affordable Learning Georgia. 2020. “Course Catalog Designators-About.”

Ahearn, L. M. 2001. “Language and Agency.” Annual Review of Anthropology 30: 109-137.

Alexander, Bryan, Kevin Ashford-Rowe, Noreen Barajas-Murphy, Gregory Dobbin, Jessica Knott, Mark McCormack, Jeffery Pomerantz, Ryan Seilhamer, and Nicole Weber. 2019. EDUCAUSE Horizon Report: 2019 Higher Education Edition.

American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers. 2016. “The Interactive Catalog of the Future.” AACRAO Connect (June 14).

American Library Association. 2012. “Developing and Implementing a Simple Media/Communications Plan.”

Babad, Elisha. 2001. “Students’ Course Selection: Differential Consideration for First and Last Course.” Research in Higher Education 42 (4): 469-492.

Bell, Steven. 2017. “What about the Bookstore: Textbook Affordability Programs and the Academic Library-Bookstore Relationship.” College & Research Libraries News 78 (7).

———. 2018 “Course Materials Adoption: A Faculty Survey and Outlook for the OER Landscape.” Choice.

Bliss, T. J., T. Jared Robinson, John Hilton, and David A. Wiley. 2013. “An OER COUP: College Teacher and Student Perceptions of Open Educational Resources.” Journal of Interactive Media in Education 1: Annex A and Annex B.

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. 2019. “Report on the Economic Well-Being of U.S. Households in 2018-May 2019.”

Boise State University. 2011. “University Policy 4160: Development of Schedule of Classes-General.” Boise State University.

Bringle, Robert G., Julie A. Hatcher, and Richard N. Muthiah. 2010. “The Role of Service-Learning on the Retention of First-Year Students to Second Year.” Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning 16 (2): 38-49.

Business Wire. 2020. “Textbook Publishers Sued by College Students Claiming Giants Conspired to Illegally Monopolize Lucrative Market, Law Firm FeganScott Announces.”

California State University. n.d. “Frequently Asked Questions.” Accessed April 15, 2020.

Cangialosi, K. 2018. Twitter post. May 3, 2018, 7:53 p.m.,

Chae, Boyoung, Kevin Corcoran, Michael Daly, Ann Fiddler, Jeff Gallant, James Glapa-Grossklag, Amy Hofer, and Michelle Reed. 2019. Price Transparency: State Approaches to OER/No Cost/Low Cost Course Schedule Designators. Arlington, TX: Mavs Open Press.

Chronicle of Higher Education. 2014. “25 Years of Declining State Support for Public Colleges.”

Civitas Learning. 2018. “Press Release: Popular Course Planner Embeds New Search Tool to Help Students Identify Classes with Free or Low-Cost Course Materials.”

Cohen, Arthur M., Brawer, Florence B., and Carrie B. Kisker. 2014. The American Community College. Sixth ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Colvard, Nicholas, C. Edward Watson, and Hyojin Park. 2018. “The Impact of Open Educational Resources on Various Student Success Metrics.” International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 30 (2): 262-76.

Cromwell, Josh. 2017. “Connecting Library Textbook Programs to Campus Initiatives.” In Diaz, C. (Ed.), Affordable Course Materials: Electronic Textbooks and Open Education Resources. Chicago, IL.: American Library Association.

CSCU Open Educational Resources. n.d. Open Educational Resources. Accessed April 15, 2020.

Cummings-Sauls, Rebel, Matt Ruen, Sarah Beaubien, and Jeremy Smith. 2018. “Open Partnerships: Identifying and Recruiting Allies for Open Educational Resources Initiatives.” In A. Wesolek, J. Lashley, and A. Langley (Eds.), OER: A Field Guide for Academic Librarians. Forest Grove, OR: Pacific University Press.

CUNY. 2020. “Guidelines for Designating a Course Section with the ‘Zero Textbook Cost’ (ZTC/OER) Attribute.”

CUNYMedia. 2018. “Zero Textbook Cost Courses.” Video.

Davis, Martin. 2018. “Thinking Customization? Keep in Mind the Top Challenges of Customizing an ERP System.” Ultra Consultants.

Drexel University. n.d. “Course Scheduling Policies.” Accessed February 19, 2020.

Durbin, Dick. 2019. “Durbin, Markey, Blumenthal Request Information on Student Data Collection Practices.” Dick Durbin United States Senator Illinois.

Eckel, Peter D., and Adrianna Kezar. 2016. “The Intersecting Authority of Boards, Presidents, and  Faculty: Toward Shared Leadership.” In M. N. Bastedo, P. G. Altbach, P.G., and P. J. Gumport (Eds.), American Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century: Social, Political, and Economics Challenges, pp. 155-187.

Ellucian. 2020. “GIT Infrastructure Implementation (Banner Technical).”

Ellucian Banner. 2020. Ellucian. Student information system software.

Ellucian PowerCampus. 2020. Ellucian. Student information system software.

Finkbeiner, Nicole. 2019. “OER Class Schedule Survey (Responses).”

Finkbeiner, Nicole. n.d. “OER Class Schedule Survey.” Form. Accessed April 15, 2020.

Fischer, L., J. Hilton, T. J. Robinson, and D. Wiley. 2015. “A multi-institutional study of the impact of open textbook adoption on the learning outcomes of post-secondary students.” Journal of Computing in Higher Education 27 (3): 159-172.

Florida Virtual Campus. 2016. 2016 Student Textbook and Course Materials Survey.

Freed, Brooke, Amber Friedman, Sarah Lawlis, and Angie Stapleton. 2018. Evaluating Oregon’s Open Educational Resources Designation Requirement. Report. Salem, OR: University of Oregon School of Planning, Public Policy and Management.

Fulton-Montgomery Community College Board of Trustees. 2016. “Motion to Approve Open Educational Resource Course Fee.”

G2. 2019. “Best Student Information Systems (SIS).”

Gallant, Jeff, and Marie Lasseter. 2018. 2018 USG Survey Report on Open Educational Resources. Affordable Learning Georgia.

Gardner, John N. 2002. “What, So What, Now What: Reflections, Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations on Service-Learning and the First-Year Experience.” In Service-Learning and the First-Year Experience: Preparing Students for Personal Success and Civic Responsibility. Monograph Series No. 34. Edited by Edward Zlotkowski, pp. 141-150. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition.

Gerdes, John H., and Tena B. Crews. 2010. “Developing Course Profiles to Match Course Characteristics with Student Learning Styles.” NACADA Journal 30 (1): 23-33.

Goodman, Jennifer. 2017. “Collaborating to Scale OER.” Inside Higher Ed.

Griffiths, Rebecca, Shari Gardner, Patrik Lundh, Linda Shear, Alexandra Ball, Jessica Mislevy, Shuai Wang, Donna Desrochers, and Richard Staisloff. 2018. “Participant Experiences and Financial Impacts: Findings from Year 2 of Achieving the Dream’s OER Degree Initiative.” Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.

Hewlett Foundation. 2015. Open Educational Resources.

Hilton III, John. 2016. “Open Educational Resources and College Textbook Choices: A Review of Research on Efficacy and Perceptions.” Educational Technology Research and Development 64 (4): 573-590.

Hilton III, John, Lane Fischer, David Wiley, and Linda Williams. 2016. “Maintaining Momentum Toward Graduation: OER and the Course Throughput Rate.” International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning 17 (6): 18-27.

Hilton III, John, David Wiley, Lane Fischer, and Rob Nyland. 2016. Guidebook to Research on Open Educational Resources Adoption. Open Education Group

Hofer, Amy, Zip Krummel, Kristen Kane, John Schoppert, Jennifer Lantrip, Jessica Knoch, and Jenn Kepka. 2017. “OER Impact Research.” Slide presentation. OER Symposium, Portland State University, May 11, 2017.

Hope, Joan. 2015. “Collaborate to provide comprehensive support, boost retention.” The Successful Registrar 15 (4): 12.

Illowsky, Barbara, and Susan Dean. 2020. Introductory Statistics. Houston, TX: OpenStax.

Jaggars, Shanna Smith, Amanda L. Folk, and David Mullins. 2018. “Understanding students’ satisfaction with OERs as course materials.” Performance Measurement and Metrics 19 (1): 66-74.

James, Theresa A. 2006. A Handbook for Honors Programs at Two-Year Colleges. Lincoln, NE: National Collegiate Honors Council.

Jensen, Kristi. 2015. “Keeping Up with….Affordable Course Content.” Association of College and Research Libraries.

Jenzabar. 2020. Jenzabar. Student information system software. Boston, MA.

Jhangiani, Rajiv. 2019a. “Kwantlen Polytechnic University’s Zed Cred Initiative.” Video.

———. 2019b. “Search the Course Timetable for Zero Textbook Cost Courses.” Video. Kwantlen Polytechnic University.

Jhangiani, Rajiv S., Farhad N. Dastur, Richard Le Grand, and Kurt Penner. 2018. “Digital Open Textbook Questionnaire.”

Jones, Kyle M. L. 2019. “Learning Analytics and Higher Education: A Proposed Model for Establishing Informed Consent Mechanisms to Promote Student Privacy and Autonomy.” International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education 16 (24): 1-22.

Kim, Joshua. 2014. “A College Bookstore Q&A.” Inside Higher Ed, June 12, 2014.

Kitch, Rhonda Kay. 2015. “Best Practices for Communicating Critical Messages from a Registrar’s Office to Traditional-Aged College Students.” Ph.D. diss., North Dakota State University.

Klaudinyi, Jen, David Koehler, Jody Potter, and Heather White. 2018. “OER Designations in the Schedule: System Considerations.” Open Oregon Educational Resources. Slidedeck presented online February 21, 2018. Video, 1:12:07.

Kuh, George, Jillian Kinzie, John Schuh, Elizabeth Whitt. 2005. Student Success in College: Creating Conditions that Matter. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Lashley, Jonathan, Rebel Cummings-Sauls, Andrew Bennett, and Brian Lindshield. 2017. “Cultivating Textbook Alternatives from the Ground Up: One Public University’s Sustainable Model for Open and Alternative Educational Resource Proliferation.” The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning 18 (4).

Lengerich, Eugene, and Pennsylvania State University. 2018. “Bias, Confounding and Effect Modification.” In STAT 507: Epidemiological Research Methods.

Librarians as Open Education Leaders. 2015.

Lieberman, Mark. 2017. “OER and Affordable-Textbook Labeling Gains Ground.” Inside Higher Ed.

Lindgren, Robb, and Rudy McDaniel. 2012. “Transforming Online Learning through Narrative and Student Agency.” Educational Technology & Society 15 (4): 344-355.

Long Beach Community College. n.d. Zero Textbook Cost: Course Status Page. Accessed April 15, 2020.

Lower Columbia College. 2018.  “Class Schedule Fall 2018.”

Lupton, Ellen, and Noel Cunningham. 2014. Type on Screen: A Guide for Designers, Developers, Writers, and Students. New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press.

Lupton, Ellen, and Jennifer C. Phillips. 2015. Graphic Design: The New Basics. Second ed. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

Maricopa Community Colleges. 2020. “Open Education Resources.”

McKenzie, Lindsay. 2020. “A Legal Challenge for Inclusive Access.” Inside Higher Ed, January 27, 2020.

Mt. Hood Community College. 2019. “How to Identify Low-Cost and No-Cost Textbooks on the Course Schedule.” Video.

———. 2020a. “Course Section Reporting Form & FAQ.”

———. 2020b. “Textbook Affordability Team.”

Munro, Daniel, Jenna Omassi, and Brady Yano. 2016. OER Student Toolkit. Victoria, BC: BCcampus.

National Association of College Stores. 2017. “Highlights from Faculty Watch Attitudes and Behaviors toward Course Materials 2016-17 Report.”

National Council for Voluntary Organisations. 2019. “Developing a Communications Strategy.”

New Media Consortium, and EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. 2016. The NMC Horizon Report: 2016 Higher Education Edition. Austin, TX.

OER Champion Playbook. 2017. Portland, OR: Lumen Learning.

Open Education Group. 2017. OER Research Toolkit.

———. 2019. “The Review Project.”

Open Oregon. 2019. “Small Dollar Amounts Are Significant.” Open Oregon Educational Resources.

Open Textbook Alliance. 2016. Student Government Toolkit: Making Textbooks Affordable.

Open Washington. 2016. “Open Course Library-Open Washington: Open Educational Resources Network.”

Pearson, Victoria, and Carolyne Culver. 2016. Writing a Communications Strategy. PowerPoint. Oxford, UK: University of Oxford.

Pew Trusts. 2019. “Two Decades of Change in Federal and State Higher Education Funding.”

Portland Community College. 2016. “Material Costs in the Schedule FAQ.”

Reed, Michelle. 2018. “Open for UTA Students: Find OER Courses.” Arlington, TX: University of Texas at Arlington.

———. 2019. Texas Toolkit for OER Course Markings (A Living Guide). Arlington, TX:  UTA Libraries.

Romo, Vanessa. 2018. “Hunger and Homelessness Are Widespread among College Students, Study Finds.” The Two-Way. NPR. April 3, 2018.

Saunders, Daniel. 2007. “The Impact of Neoliberalism on College Students.” Journal of College and Character  8 (5): 1-9.

Sclatar, Niall, and Joel Mullan. 2017. “Jisc briefing: Learning Analytics and Student Success: Assessing the Evidence.”

Seaman, Julia, and Jeff Seaman. 2017. Opening the Textbook: Educational Resources in U.S. Higher Education. Report.

———. 2018. Freeing the Textbook: Educational Resources in U.S. Higher Education, 2018. Report.

Senack, Ethan. 2014. “Fixing the Broken Textbook Market: How Students Respond to High Textbook Costs and Demand Alternatives.” U.S. PIRG Education Fund and the Student PIRGS.

SPARC. 2019a. “2018-2019 Connect OER Report.”

———. 2019b. “OER State Policy Tracker.” Retrieved February 19, 2020, from

Sparcopen. 2020. State of OE Policies. Repository.

Student PIRGs. 2004. “New Report Shows College Textbooks Are ‘Ripoff 101’: Publishers Increase Prices through Gimmicks, Faculty Are Concerned.” Press Release.

University of Iowa. 2020. “Fall and Spring: Policies and Procedures.”

SUNY Erie. 2014. “Welcome to Online Course Blueprint.”

SUNY OER Services. 2020. “SUNY OER Ready-to-Adopt Courses.”

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2016. “College Tuition and Fees Increase 63 Percent since January 2006.” The Economics Daily, August 30, 2016.

U.S. Department of Education. 2008. Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008.

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 2019. “Digest of Education Statistics, 2017 (NCES 2018-070).”

U.S. Government Accountability Office. 2013. College Textbooks: Students Have Greater Access to Textbook Information.

Walz, Anita, Kristi Jensen, and Joseph Salem. 2016. SPEC Kit 351: Affordable Course Content and Open Educational Resources. Washington, DC: Association of Research Libraries.

Washington Community and Technical Colleges. 2019. Implementation Guide of OER and Low-Cost Labeling Policies for Washington Community and Technical Colleges. Report. Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges.

Wiley, David. 2014. “The Access Compromise and the 5th R.” Iterating toward Openness, March 5, 2014.

———. 2019a. “The OER Adoption Impact Calculator.” Version 1.2.

———. 2019b. “On ZTC, OER, and a More Expansive View.” Iterating toward Openness, August 27, 2019.

———. n.d. Defining the “Open” in Open Content and Open Educational Resources. Accessed April 15, 2020.


Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Marking Open and Affordable Courses: Best Practices and Case Studies by Breeman Ainsworth, Nicole Allen, Jessica Dai, Abbey Elder, Nicole Finkbeiner, Amie Freeman, Sarah Hare, Kris Helge, Nicole Helregel, Jeanne Hoover, Jessica Kirschner, Joy Perrin, Jacquelyn Ray, Jennifer Raye, Michelle Reed, John Schoppert, and Liz Thompson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book